Bloodbourne Pathogens

Bloodbourne Pathogens - Bloodborne Pathogens and Universal...

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Bloodborne Pathogens and Universal Precautions KNES 200: Introduction to Athletic Training
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Terminology Disease - an interruption, cessation, or disorder of body functions, systems, or organs. Pathogen - microorganism capable of causing disease. Virulence - ability of pathogen to produce disease . Transmission - the way infectious agents are spread Universal Precautions - infection control approach saying all human blood, tissue and certain fluids may be contaminated.
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Bloodborne pathogens are transmitted through contact with blood or other bodily fluids Hepatitis, especially hepatitis B, and human immunodeficiency virus are of serious concern Healthcare facility must be maintained as clean and sterile to prevent spread of disease and infection Must take precautions to minimize risk
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Virus Reproduction Submicroscopic parasitic organism is dependent on nutrients of cell Strand of DNA or RNA dependent on metabolic and reproductive activity of cell Redirect cell activity to create more viruses
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Bloodborne Pathogens Pathogenic organisms, present in human blood and other fluids (cerebrospinal fluid, semen, vaginal secretion and synovial fluid) that can potentially cause disease Most significant pathogens are HBV and HIV Others that exist are hepatitis A, C, D, and syphilis
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Hepatitis A Common in children and results from poor hygiene (food preparers that don’t wash hands) Transmitted through unprotected sex Hep B, C, D are most common in adults and require contact with bodily fluids Hepatitis C is relatively rare and similar to hepatitis B Hepatitis D occurs due to complications with B Liver damage is more severe with B and C than with A and D
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Hepatitis B Major cause of viral infection, resulting in swelling, soreness, loss of normal liver function New cases develop at a rate of 300,000/year Signs and symptoms Flu-like symptoms like fatigue, weakness, nausea, abdominal pain, headache, fever, and possibly jaundice Possible that individual will not exhibit signs and symptoms -- antigen always present Can be unknowingly transferred
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Chronic active hepatitis may occur because of problem with immune system, preventing complete destruction of virus infected liver cells May test positive for antigen w/in 2-6 weeks of symptom development 85% recover within 6-8 weeks Prevention Good personal hygiene and avoiding high risk activities Proceed with caution as HBV can survive in blood and fluids, in dried blood and on contaminated surfaces for at least 1 week
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Management Vaccination against HBV should be provided by employer to those who may be exposed Athletic trainers and allied health professionals should be vaccinated Three dose vaccination over 6 months
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Bloodbourne Pathogens - Bloodborne Pathogens and Universal...

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