apLectureNotes02 - CHAPTER2 THE C HEMICAL CONTEXT O F L IFE...

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CHAPTER 2 THE CHEMICAL CONTEXT OF LIFE OUTLINE L Chemical Elements and Compounds A. Matter consists of chemical elements in pure form and in combinations called comPounds B. Life requires about 25 chemical elements II. Atoms and Molecules A. Atomic structure determines the behavior of an element B.Atomscombinebychemicalbondingtoformmolecules c. weak chemical bonds play important roles in the chemistry of life D'Amolecule'sbiologicalfunctionisrelatedtoitsshape E. Chemical reactions make and break chemical bonds OBJECTTVES After reading this chapter and attending lecture, the student should be able to: 1. Define element and comPound' 2. State four elements essential to lif'e that make up 96Yo of living matter' 3. Describe the structure of an atom' 4. Define and distinguish among atomic number, mass number, atomic weight' and valence' 5. Given the atomic number and mass number of an atom, determine the number of neutrons. 6'Explainwhyradioisotopesareimportanttobiologists. 7. Explain how electron configuration influences the chemical behavior of an atom' 8. Explain the octet rule and predict how many bonds an atom might form' g. Explain why the noble gases are so unreactive' 10. Define electronegativity and explain how it influences the formation of chemical bonds. I 1. Distinguish among nonpolar covalent, polar covalent and ionic bonds' lZ. Describe the formation of a hydrogen bond and explain how it differs from a covalent or ionic bond. 13.
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L2 Unit I The Chemisrry of Life KEYTERMS matter atomic weight valence electron polar covalent bond element isotope valence shell ion trace element radioactive isotope chemical bond cation atom energy covalent bond anion neutron potential energy molecule ionic bond proton energy level structural formula hydrogen bond electron energy molecular formula chemical reactions atomic nucleus potential energy double covalent bond reactants dalton energy level valence products atomic number electron shell electronegativity chemical equilibrium mass number orbital nonpolar covalent bond LECTT]RENOTES I. Chemical Elements and Compounds A. Matter consists of chemical elements in pure form and in combinations called compounds Chemistry is fundamental to an understanding of life, because living organisms are made of matter. Matter: Anything that takes up space and has mass. Mass : A measure of the amount of matter an obiect contains. You might want to distinguish between mass and weight for your students. Mass is the measure of the amount of matter an object contains, and it stays the same regardless of _changes in the object's position. Weight is the measure of how strongly an object is pulled by earth's gravity, and it varies with distance from the earth's center. Thi key point is that the mass of a body does not vary with its position, whereas weight does. So, for all practical purposes-as long as we are earthbound-weight can be used as a
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apLectureNotes02 - CHAPTER2 THE C HEMICAL CONTEXT O F L IFE...

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