apLectureNotes15 - C HAPTER 1 5 THE C HROMOSOMAL BASIS O F...

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CHAPTER 15 THE CHROMOSOMAL BASIS OF INHERITANCE OUTLINE I. Relating Mendelism to Chromosomes A. Mendelian inheritance has its physical basisin the behavior of chromosomes during sexual life cYcles B. Morgan traced a gene to a specific chromosome: science aS a process C. Linked genes tend to be inherited together because they are located on the same chromosome D. Independent assortment of chromosomes and crossing over produce genettc recombinants E. Geneticists can use recombination data to map a chromosome's genetic loci II. Sex Chromosomes A. The chromosomal basis of sex varies with the organism B.Sex.linkedgeneshaveuniquepatternsofinheritance III. Errors and Exceptions to Chromosomal Inheritance A. Alterations of chromosome number or structure cause some genetic disorders B. The phenotypic effects of some genes depend on whether they were inherited from the mother or father c. Extranuclear genes exhibit a non-Mendelian pattern of inheritance OBJECTTVES After reading this chapter and attending lecture, the student should be able to: 1 . Explain how the observations of cytologists and geneticists provided the basis for the chromosome theory of inheritance' Z. Describe the contributions that Thomas Hunt Morgan,. Walter Sutton, and A'H' Sturtevant made to current understanding of chromosomal inheritance' 3. Explain why Drosophila melanogaster is a good experimental organism' 4. Define linkage and explain why linkage interferes with independent assortment' 5. Distinguish between parental and recombinant phenofpes' 6. Explain how crossing over can unlink genes' 7. Map a linear sequence of .genes on a chromosome using given recombination frequencies from experimental crosses' 8. Explain what additional information cytological maps provide over crossover maps' g.Distinguishbetweenaheterogameticsexandahomogameticsex. 10. Describe sex determination in humans' I 1. Describe the inheritance of a sex-linked gene such as color-blindness' 12. Explain why a recessive sex-linked gene is always expressed in human males'
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202 Unit il Genetics 13. Explain how an organism compensates for the fact that some individuals have a double dosage of sex-linked genes while others have only one. 14. Distinguish among nondisjunction, aneuploidy, and polyploidy; explain how these major chromosomal changes occur and describe the consequences. l5. Distinguish between trisomy and triploidy. 16. Distinguish among deletions, duplications, translocations, and inversions. 11. Describe the effects of alterations in chromosome structure, and explain the role of position effects in altering the phenotype. 18. Describe the type of chromosomal alterations implicated in the following human disorders: Down syndrome, Klinefelter syndrome, extra Y, triple-X syndrome-, Turner syndrome, cri du chat syndrome, and chronic myelogenous leukemia. 19. Define genomic imprinting and provide evidence to support this model. 20. Explain how the complex expression of a human genetic disorder, such as fragile-X syndrome, can be influenced by triplet repeats and genomic imprinting. 21.
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This note was uploaded on 12/14/2009 for the course SCIU 001 taught by Professor Durkka during the Fall '09 term at Acton School of Business.

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apLectureNotes15 - C HAPTER 1 5 THE C HROMOSOMAL BASIS O F...

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