apLectureNotes16 - 1 C HAPTE,R 6 THE M OLECULAR B ASIS OF T...

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CHAPTE,R 16 THE MOLECULAR BASIS OF TNHERITANCE OUTLINE I. DNA as the Genetic Material A. The search for the genetic material led to DNA: science as a process B. Watson and Crick discovered the double helix by building models to conform to X- ray data: science as a Process II. DNA Replication and RePair A. During DNA replication, base-pairing enables existing DNA strands to serve as templates for new complementary strands B. A large team of enzymesand other proteins carries out DNA replication C. Enzymes proofread DNA during its replication and repair damage to existing DNA D. The ends of DNA molecules pose a special function. OBJECTIVES After reading this chapter and attending lecture,the student should be able to: 1. Explain why researchers originally thought protein was the genetic material. Z. Summarizeexperiments performed by the following scientists, which provided evidence that DNA is the genetic material: a. Frederick Griffith b. Alfred HersheY and Martha Chase c. Erwin Chargaff 3. List the three components of a nucleotide. 4. Distinguish between deoxyribose and ribose. 5. List the nitrogen bases found in DNA, and distinguish between pyrimidine and purine. 6. Explain how Watson and Crick deduced the structure of DNA, and describe what evidence they used. 7 . Explain the "base-pairing rule" and describe its significance' 8. Describe the structure of DNA, and explain what kind of chemical bond connects the nucleotidesof each strand and what type of bond holds the two strands together. 9. Explain, in their own words, semiconservative replication, and describe the Meselson- Stahl experiment. 10. Describe the process of DNA replication, and explain the role of helicase, single strand binding protein, DNA polymerase, ligase, and primase' 1 I . Explain what energy sourcedrives endergonic synthesis of DNA. 12. Define antiparallel, and explain why continuous synthesis of both DNA strands is not possible.
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21 8 unit III Genetics 13. Distinguish between the leading strand and the laggingstrand. 14. Explain how the lagging strand is synthesized when DNA polymerase can add nucleotides only to the 3'end. 15. Explain the role of DNA polymerase, ligase, and repair enzymes in DNA proofreading and repair. KBYTERMS phages DNA polymerase primase nuclease double helix leading strand helicase exiision repair semiconservative model lagging strand single-strand binding telomerase origins of replication DNA ligase protein replication fork primer mismatch repair LECTURE NOTES Deoxyribonucleic acid, or DNA, is genetic material. DNA is the substance of Mendel's heritable factors and of Morgan's genes on chromosomes. Inheritance has its molecular basis in the precise replication and transmission of DNA from parent to offspring. I. DNA as the Genetic Material A. The search for the genetic material led to DNA: science as a process By the 1940s, scientists knew that chromosomes carried hereditary material and consisted of DNA and protein. Most researchers thought protein was the genetic materialbecause: .
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