apLectureNotes17 - C HAPTER1 7 FROM G ENE T O P ROTEIN...

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CHAPTER 17 FROM GENE TO PROTEIN OUTLINE I. The Connection between Genes and Proteins A. The study of metabolic defects provided evidence that genes specify proteins: science as a Process B. Transcription and translation are the two main processes linking gene to protein: an overview c. In the genetic code, nucleotide triplets speciff amino acids D. The genetic code must have evolved very early in the history of life II. The Synthesis and Processing of RNA A. Transcription is the DNA-directed synthesis of RNA: a closer look B. Eukaryotic cells modifu RNA after transcription IIL The SYnthesis of Protein A. Translation is the RNA-directed synthesis of a polypeptide: a closer look B. Signal peptides target some eukaryotic polypeptides to specific locations in the cell C. RNA plays multiple roles in the cell: a review D.Comparingproteinsynthesisinprokaryotesandeukaryotes:areview E. Point mutations can affect protein structure and function F. What is a gene? revisiting the question OBJECTIVBS After reading this chapter and attending lecture, the student should be able to: 1. Give early experimental evidence that implicated proteins as the links between genotYPe and PhenotYPe. 2. Describe Beadle and Tatum's experiments with Neurospora, and explain the contribution they made to our unierstanding of how genes control metabolism' 3. Distinguish between "one gene-one enzyme" hypothesis and "one gene-one polypJptide,,, and explain *ty tn" original hypothesis was changed. 4. Explain how RNA differs from DNA' 5. In their own words, briefly explain how information flows from gene to Protein. 6. Distinguish between transcription and translation' 7 . Describe where transcription and translation occur in prokaryotes and in eukaryotes; explain why it is significant that in eukaryotes, transcription and translation are separated in space and time' 8. Define codon, and explain what relationship exists between the linear sequence of codons on mRNA and the linear sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide. g. List the three stop codons and the one start codon'
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232 Unit III Genetics I 1. Explain the evolutionary significance of a nearly universal genetic code. 12. Explain the process of transcription including the three major steps of initiation, elongation, and termination. 13. Describe the general role of RNA polymerase in transcription. 14. Explain how RNA polymerase recognizes where transcription should begin. 15. Specifically, describe the primary functions of RNA polymerase II. 16. Distinguish among mRNA, tRNA, and rRNA. 17. Describe the structure of IRNA and explain how the structure is related to function.
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This note was uploaded on 12/14/2009 for the course SCIU 001 taught by Professor Durkka during the Fall '09 term at Acton School of Business.

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apLectureNotes17 - C HAPTER1 7 FROM G ENE T O P ROTEIN...

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