apLectureNotes18 - C HAPTER 1 8 MICROBIAL M ODELS: T HE G...

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CHAPTER 18 MICROBIAL MODELS: THE GENETICS OF VIRUSES AND BACTERIA OUTLINE I. The Genetics of Viruses A. Researchers discovered viruses by studying a plant disease: science as q process B. A virus is a genome enclosed in a protective coat. C. Viruses can reproduce only within a host cell'. an overview D. Phages reproduce using lytic or lysogenic cycles E,. Animal viruses are diverse in their modes of infection and of replication F. Plant viruses are serious agricultural pests G. Viroids and prions are infectious agents even simpler than viruses H. Viruses may have evolved from other mobile genetic elements IL The Genetics of Bacteria A. The short generation span of bacteria facilitates their evolutionary adaptation to changing environments B. Genetic recombination produces new bacterial strains C. The control of gene expression enables individual bacteria to adjust their metabolism to environmental change OBJECTTVES After reading this chapter and attending lecture, the student should be able to: 1 . Recount the history leading up to the discovery of viruses and discuss the contributions of A. Mayer, D. Ivanowsky, Martinus Bei;erinck, and wendell Stanley. 2. List and describe structural components of viruses. 3. Explain why viruses are obligate parasites. 4. Describe three patterns of viral genome replication' 5. Explain the role of reverse transcriptase in retroviruses' 6. Describe how viruses recognize host cells. j. Distinguish between lytic and lysogenic reproductive cycles using phage Ta and phage l" as examples. 8. Outline the procedure for measuring phage concentration in a liquid medium. g. Describe several defenses bacteria have against phage infection. 10. Using viruses with envelopes and RNA viruses as examples, describe variations in replication cycles of animal viruses. I 1. Explain how viruses may cause disease symptoms, and describe some medical weapons used to fight viral infections. 12. List some viruses that have been implicated in human cancers, and explain how tumor viruses transform cells. 13. Distinguish between horizontal and vertical routes of viral transmission in plants.
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254 Unit III Genetics 14. List some characteristics that viruses share with living organisms, and explain why viruses do not fit our usual definition of life. 15. Provide evidence that viruses probably evolved from fragments of cellular nucleic acid. 16. Describe the structure of a bacterial chromosome. 17. Describe the process of binary fission in bacteria, and explain why replication of the bacterial chromosome is considered to be semiconservative. 18. List and describe the three natural processes of genetic recombination in bacteria. 19. Distinguish between general transduction and specialized transduction. 20. Explain how the F plasmid controls conjugation 21. Explain how bacterial conjugation differs from sexual reproduction in eukaryotic organisms. 22. For donor and recipient bacterial cells, predict the consequences of conjugation between the following: 1) F- and F- cell, 2) Hfr and F cell. 23 . Define transposon, and describe two essential
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apLectureNotes18 - C HAPTER 1 8 MICROBIAL M ODELS: T HE G...

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