apLectureNotes19 - C HAPTER1 9 THE O RGANIZATION A ND C...

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CHAPTER 19 THE ORGANIZATION AND CONTROL OF EUKARYOTIC GENOMES OUTIJNB I. The Structure of Chromatin A. Chromatin structure is based on successive levels of DNA packing II. Genome Organization at the DNA Level A. Repetitive DNA and other noncoding sequences account for much of a eukaryotic genome B. Gene families have evolved by duplication of ancestral genes C. Gene amplification, loss, or rearrangement can alter a cell's genome III. The Control of Gene Expression A. Each cell of a multicellular eukaryote expresses only a small fraction of its genome B. The control of gene expression can occur at any step in the pathway from gene to functional Protein C. Chromatin modifications affect the availability of genes for transcription D. Transcription initiation is controlled by proteins that interact with DNA and with each other E. posttranscriptional mechanisms play supporting roles in the control of gene expression IV. The Molecular BiologY of Cancer A. Cancer results from genetic changes that affect the cell cycle B. Oncogene proteins and faulty tumor-suppressor proteins C. Multiple mutations underlie the development of cancer OBJECTTVES After reading this chapter and attending lecture, the student should be able to: 1. Compare the organization of prokaryotic and eukaryotic genomes. 2. Describe the current model for progressive levels of DNA packing' 3. Explain how histones influence folding in eukaryotic DNA' 4. Distinguish between heterochromatin and euchromatin. 5. Using the Barr body as an example, describe the function of heterochromatin in interphase cells. 6. Describe where satellite DNA is found and what role it may play in the cell. j. Describe the role of telomeres in solving the end-replication problem with the lagging DNA strand. g. Using the genes
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280 Unit Itt Genetics 9. Using o-globin and B-globin genes as examples, describe how multigene families of nonidentical genes probably evolve, including the role of transposition. 10. Explain the potential role that promoters and enhancers play in transcriptional control. 1 1. Explain why the nuclear envelope in eukaryotes offers a level of post-transcriptional control beyond that found in prokaryotes. 12. Explain why the ability to rapidly degrade mRNA can be an adaptive advantage for prokaryotes. 13. Describe the importance of mRNA degradation in eukaryotes, describe how it can be prevented. f4. Explain how gene expression may be controlled at the translational and post- translational level. 1 5. Compare the arrangement of coordinately controlled genes in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. 16. Explain how eukaryotic genes can be coordinately expressed and give some examples of
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This note was uploaded on 12/14/2009 for the course SCIU 001 taught by Professor Durkka during the Fall '09 term at Acton School of Business.

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apLectureNotes19 - C HAPTER1 9 THE O RGANIZATION A ND C...

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