AnimalStructureandFunctionPartI

AnimalStructureandFunctionPartI - Unit VII: Animal...

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Unit VII: Animal Structure and Function, Part I Animal Nutrition, Circulation and Gas Exchange, and Immunity
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Unit Objectives Observe how animals adjust to the environment over the long term by adaptation due to natural selection and over the short term by physiological responses. + How do animals obtain energy from the environment? + How do animals obtain O 2 for cell respiration while disposing of the waste gas CO 2 ? + How do animals respond to pathogens?
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Epithelial Tissue The Cell basic unit of structural organization for all living things + tissue (Latin, weave ) - groups of cells with a common structure and function Epithelial Tissue + surface tissue- covers every surface of the body - squamous - cuboidal - columnar
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Connective Tissue Live cells in a non-living matrix
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Connective Tissue (con’t) Blood RBC/WBC in water based fluid plasma Bone osteocytes living in calcified hard matrix Ligaments fibroblasts in a matrix of collagen fibers + bone-to-bone connection Tendons fibroblasts in a matrix of less elastic fibers + muscle-to-bone connection Cartilage chondrocytes in a soft/pliable matrix Adipose tissue mostly cells (little matrix) Loose connective tissue tissue glue of the body
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Muscle Tissue Muscle Tissue muscle fibers capable of contracting when stimulated by nerve impulses + Skeletal Muscle - striated (striped) - voluntary movements - multinucleated + Smooth Muscle - branched, tapered - involuntary actions + Cardiac Muscle - striated, branched - no neurons
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Muscle Contraction Skeletal Muscle two kinds + fast-twitch (white meat) - tend to go anaerobic + slow-twitch (dark meat) - myoglobin-rich “twitch” + contraction of protein filaments causes muscles to shorten - thin (actin ) and thick (myosin ) bands - interleaved with each other + myosin grabs actin and pulls - sliding filament theory of muscle contraction
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Muscle Contraction Sliding Filament Theory relaxed muscle + length of each sarcomere is greater - Z-line to Z-line Contracting Muscle + actin/myosin slide past each other - shortening the sarcomere Contracted Muscle (maximum) + actin filaments overlap each other - sarcomere is very short
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Nervous Tissue
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Organ Systems Digestive System: mouth … anus Circulatory System: heart, blood vessels, blood Respiratory System: lungs, trachea, other breathing tubes Immune and Lymphatic System: marrow, lymph nodes, spleen, WBC Excretory System: kidneys, ureters, bladder, urethra Endocrine System: hormone-secreting glands Reproductive System: ovaries, testes, etc. Nervous System: brain, spinal cord, nerves Integumentary System: skin and its derivatives Skeletal System: bones, tendons, ligaments, cartilage Muscular System: skeletal muscles
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Bioenergetics Overview animals derive chemical energy from the environment in food digestion breaks down food into nutrient molecules + some energy returns to environment as feces nutrient molecules enter body cells
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AnimalStructureandFunctionPartI - Unit VII: Animal...

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