AnimalStructureandFunctionPartII - Unit VIII Animal...

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Unit VIII: Animal Structure and Function, Part II The Human Excretory and Nervous Systems
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Excretory System Nitrogen-containing wastes toxic by-products of protein and nucleic acid metabolism + ammonia - small and very toxic - no energy required - must be diluted + urea - 100,000 times less toxic - formed by combining CO 2 and NH 2 + uric acid - excreted in paste-like form - conserve even more water
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The Kidney Human Kidneys two bean-shaped organs, one on each side of backbone + represent 0.5% body weight; + receive 20-25% of arterial blood pumped by the heart - renal artery/vein each contains 1 million nephrons + ureter, bladder, urethra - 1300 ml/min blood enter via renal artery; 1299 ml/min blood exit via renal vein - produce 1 ml/min of urine
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The Nephron Filtration and Refinement filtration + blood/body fluid exposed to filtering device - selectively permeable membranes - produces filtrate reabsorption + selective transport of water and valuable solutes back into body fluids - glucose, salts, amino acids secretion + solutes from body fluids are added to filtrate excretion + discarding unwanted waste
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Nephron Function Filtration/Secretion Nephron as a filtering device approx. 120 ml/min of plasma is filtered through Bowman’s capsule + body reabsorbs as much of the “good stuff” as possible
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Reabsorption 1. Proximal Tubule + HCO 3 - (bicarbonate), H 2
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