AnimalStructureandFunctionPartIII

AnimalStructureandFunctionPartIII - Unit IX: Animal...

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Unit IX: Animal Structure and Function, Part III Hormones and Reproduction
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Regulatory Systems Nervous system and Endocrine System structurally, chemically, and functionally related + nervous system : conveys high speed messages via impulses + endocrine system : slower means of communication via hormones - hormone : chemical signal secreted into body fluids to communicate regulatory messages within the body - neurosecretory cells : nerve cells that secrete hormones regulation of several physiological processes involves overlap + each system affects the output of the other - invertebrate regulatory system + molting (see Fig. 45.2) - ecdysone (molting hormone) - brain hormone (BH) - juvenile hormone (JH)
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Chemical Signals and their Modes of Action How do hormones work? Hormones elicit responses by binding to target cells + local regulation - nitric oxide (NO) + kills cancer cells and bacteria + dilation of blood vessels - growth factors (peptides/proteins) + regulate cell behavior in developing tissues and organs - prostaglandins (PGs) + modified fatty acids + induce muscle contraction of uterine wall + induce fever/inflammation; intensify pain affect only target cells; other cell types ignore the message
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How Cells Communicate chemical signals bind to receptor proteins on or within target cell + most chemical signals are unable to pass through plasma membrane + triggers chemical events within cell that result in a change in its behavior - signal -transduction pathways
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Steroid Hormones Steroids are lipids can pass through cell membrane + bind to receptor protein + complex enters the nucleus + binds to regulatory site + stimulates transcription + specific protein made
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AnimalStructureandFunctionPartIII - Unit IX: Animal...

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