terms_12 - CHAPTER 12 The Presidency IMPORTANT TERMS*ad hoc...

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CHAPTER 12 The Presidency IMPORTANT TERMS * ad hoc structure A method in which the president organizes the White House staff by employing task forces, committees, and informal groups of friends. All have direct access to the president. Budget Reform Act of 1974 A congressional effort to control presidential impoundments. It requires, among other things, that the president spend all appropriated funds. However, if Congress is notified of which funds will not be spent and, within forty-five days, agrees to delete the items, the money can be saved. If the president wishes simply to delay spending money, Congress must be informed and may refuse the delay by passing a resolution requiring immediate release of the funds.
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*cabinet By custom, the heads of the fourteen major executive departments who meet to discuss matters with the president. These “secretaries” receive their positions by presidential nomination and confirmation by the Senate. They can be removed at the will of the president. Note: Other members of the president’s administration may be given “cabinet rank.” For example, Madeleine Albright had cabinet rank when she served as the U.N. ambassador during the first term of the Clinton administration. *circular structure A method in which the president organizes the White House staff so that they reporting directly to the president. delegate representation The representative is expected to act in accord with the preferences of her/his constituents. *direct democracy A form of democracy in which the people legislate for themselves.
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*divided government A government in which one party controls the presidency and a different party controls one or both houses of Congress. Electoral College The body that formally selects the president. Each state is allotted electoral votes equal to the number of its representatives and senators in Congress. It can decide how its electors are to be chosen and under what method they cast their votes for president. The
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