Chapter 10 - CHAPTER 10 - PHOTOSYNTHESIS Introduction Life...

Info iconThis preview shows pages 1–3. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
CHAPTER 10 - PHOTOSYNTHESIS Introduction Life on Earth is solar powered. The chloroplasts of plants use a process called photosynthesis to capture light energy from the sun and convert it to chemical energy stored in sugars and other organic molecules. A. Photosynthesis in Nature 1. Plants and other autotrophs are the producers of the biosphere Photosynthesis nourishes almost all of the living world directly or indirectly. All organisms require organic compounds for energy and for carbon skeletons. Autotrophs produce their organic molecules from CO 2 and other inorganic raw materials obtained from the environment. Autotrophs are the ultimate sources of organic compounds for all nonautotrophic organisms. Autotrophs are the producers of the biosphere. Autotrophs can be separated by the source of energy that drives their metabolism. Photo autotrophs use light as the energy source. Photosynthesis occurs in plants, algae, some other protists, and some prokaryotes. Chemo autotrophs harvest energy from oxidizing inorganic substances, including sulfur and ammonia. Chemoautotrophy is unique to bacteria. Heterotrophs live on organic compounds produced by other organisms. These organisms are the consumers of the biosphere. The most obvious type of heterotrophs feed on plants and other animals. Other heterotrophs decompose and feed on dead organisms and on organic litter, like feces and fallen leaves. Almost all heterotrophs are completely dependent on photoautotrophs for food and for oxygen, a byproduct of photosynthesis. 2. Chloroplasts are the sites of photosynthesis in plants Any green part of a plant has chloroplasts. However, the leaves are the major site of photosynthesis for most plants. There are about half a million chloroplasts per square millimeter of leaf surface. The color of a leaf comes from chlorophyll , the green pigment in the chloroplasts.
Background image of page 1

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
Chlorophyll plays an important role in the absorption of light energy during photosynthesis. Chloroplasts are found mainly in mesophyll cells forming the tissues in the interior of the leaf. O 2 exits and CO 2 enters the leaf through microscopic pores, stomata , in the leaf. Veins deliver water from the roots and carry off sugar from mesophyll cells to other plant areas. A typical mesophyll cell has 30-40 chloroplasts, each about 2-4 microns by 4-7 microns long. Each chloroplast has two membranes around a central aqueous space, the stroma. In the stroma aremembranous sacs, the thylakoids. These have an internal aqueous space, the thylakoid lumen or thylakoid space. Thylakoids may be stacked into columns called grana. B. The Pathways of Photosynthesis
Background image of page 2
Image of page 3
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

Page1 / 10

Chapter 10 - CHAPTER 10 - PHOTOSYNTHESIS Introduction Life...

This preview shows document pages 1 - 3. Sign up to view the full document.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Ask a homework question - tutors are online