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http://biology.clc.uc.edu/courses/bio105/geneprob.htm http://www.biology.arizona.edu/mendelian_genetics/problem_sets/monohybrid_cross/monohybrid_cross.htm l 1. The Cell Introduction: A cell is the fundamental unit of all living things. The Cell Theory says that all living things are composed of cells, that they are fundamental unit of life, that they arise from pre-existing cells, and that they have DNA. Experimental Methods: Microscopy: Allows one to magnify the size of objects such as cells. Resolution is defined as the differentiation of two close objects. The diaphragm of a microscope controls the amount of light passing through the specimen which is then picked up by the lens. There are 3 principal types of microscopy: 1) Light microscopy relies on contrast between cells and cell structures. For light microscopy, the specimen usually has to be fixed (chemically crosslinked so that the cellular activity is inactivated), embedded (provided with a mechanical support in which to sit in), sectioned (cut thin enough so light can penetrate it), and stained (chemically dyed so that you can see the specimen). If the specimen were not RA T E
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stained, the viewing field would be totally blank. The specimens are not living samples since they have to be stained etc. 2) Phase contrast microscopy allows the samples to be living. By looking at the differences in refractive index, you don’t have to stain the cells. 3) Electron microscopy allows for a massive amount of magnification. Tissues are fixed, sectioned, and then stained by heavy metals. When excited by electrons, the electrons are deflected off the heavy metals and analyzed by a detector. Autoradiography: Radioactivity traces and identifies cell structures. The sample is exposed to radioactivity, incubated, covered with a film, kept in the dark while the radioactivity decays, and then the emulsion develops that reveals the distribution of radioactivity. This process can be useful in labeling amino acids and then studying protein synthesis. Centrifugation: Used to separate cells. At high speeds, components separate on respective densities. Ribosomes go to bottom while lighter mitochondria or lysosomes go on top. Prokaryotes vs Eukaryotes: Prokaryotes Eukaryotes Bacteria Protists, fungi, plants, animals Cell wall Cell wall in fungi and plants only
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No nucleus (genetic materials are in circular plasmids) Has nucelus Ribosome subunit 30s,50s Ribosome subunit 40s,60s No membrane-bound organelles Membrane-bound organelles Animals vs Plants: Animals Plants No cell wall Cell wall Centrioles in centrosome area No chloroplasts Chloroplasts Eukaryotic Organelles:
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The information presented in this section will be very general and basic. You will learn a lot more about the specifics of some of these things in later chapters (for example, you will learn a LOT more about DNA in the molecular biology chapter).
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