2009 Carbohydrates Part 1 - On the ultimate composition of...

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Unformatted text preview: On the ultimate composition of simple alimentary substances; with some preliminary remarks on the analysis of organised bodies in general Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society 355 (1827) The subject of digestion, however, had for a long time occupied my particular attention: and by degrees I had come to the conclusion, that the principal alimentary matters employed by man, and the more perfect animals, might be reduced to three great classes, namely, the saccharine , the oily , and the albuminous William Prout (1785-1850) Carbohydrates in Foods Chemical structure of carbohydrates General characteristics: Composed of C, H, O Polar ( -OH and other polar functional groups) Hydrophilic (high water binding capacity) Simple carbohydrates Sugars Other small carbohydrates (e.g. ethanol) Complex carbohydrates Digestible Non-digestible (fiber) galactose Simple carbohydrates Monosaccharides ( 5-carbon, 6-carbon sugars ) ribose glucose fructose A few foods are rich sources of monosaccharides; most foods contain low concentrations Simple carbohydrates (cont) Maltose (starch hydrolysis product) Q: what monosaccharide(s) comprise maltose? (common table sugar) (milk sugar) 2 monosaccharide units connected by ether bond Disaccharides : Invert sugar Viscous liquid (a syrup) Hydrolysis product of sucrose + acid hydrolysis (incomplete) enzyme hydrolysis Invertase, -fructofuranosidase (complete) sucrose glucose fructose H 2 Simple carbohydrates (cont) Oligosaccharides: 3-5 monosaccharide units Stachyose and other oligosaccharides are often poorly hydrolyzed to mono- and disaccharides in the small intestine,...
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2009 Carbohydrates Part 1 - On the ultimate composition of...

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