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2009 Cereals, Grains, Legumes (1)

2009 Cereals, Grains, Legumes (1) - Cereal Grains Legumes...

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Cereal Grains & Legumes
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Cereals Plants of the grass family Ceres Roman goddess of agriculture Grains Fruit (“seeds”) of the cereals Cereal grains of significance world-wide Corn (maize) Millet Rice Sorghum Oats Rye Barley Buckwheat Grain domestication: 7,000 yrs (wheat, Mid East) 3,500 yrs (corn, Central Amer)
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Cereal grains Account for 70% of world protein consumption (Not including feed grains)
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Annual grain production in the U.S. soybeans: 3 billion bushels corn : 10 billion bushels wheat: 2 billion bushels
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Dried to Aw < 0.7 (why 0.7?) (whole grains) starch
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Grains & Legumes: Nutritional considerations Complementarity of cereal grains, commonly deficient in lysine, with legume beans, low in cysteine & methionine Asia: rice + soybeans Central America: corn + common beans (e.g. black beans) Essential amino acid profiles of some common protein-rich foods Protein Quality
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Endosperm mostly CHO (starch) gluten proteins (gliden, glutenin) Germ high lipid content, vitamin E Bran outer covering virtually all fiber
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Function form of wheat : FLOURS Many types of wheat flours, depending on : 1. Relative proportions of endosperm , bran and germ Whole wheat flours : all 3 portions White wheat flours : endosperm
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