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Unformatted text preview: Notes Chapter: 1 P Politics I Intellectual R Religion A Art and Architecture T Technology E Economics S Society Culture: Neolithic • Gender roles were different then as well:- Women gathered and looked after children- The strong men would lead the hunt • Farmers began to fight non-farmers for the best land • Matriarchal rule. • Kikuyu men (Kenya) overthrew by conspiring to impregnate all the women making them weak. • • Gatherers learned which plants were edible and ripened, plants good for medicine, consciousness, altering, dyeing, etc. • Hunters learned the habits of game. • Hunting powerful force rather than farming- men buried with weapons and art depicted hunt scenes • Many animals were domesticated and used as meat and a source of milk. • Special graves showed evidence that the people believed in an afterlife. Old people received intricate burials. • Sacred groves, springs, and wild animals. • Rituals centered around Mother Earth (deity of the source of new life), powerful male Sky God, and divinities of fire wind and rain. • Catal Hüyük-- Religious shrine for every two houses- Female dominated- Bulls, breasts, handprints, leopards, goddesses adorn shrines- Plump female deities outnumbered male deities- Cult priestesses buried in shrines • Many cave painting depict hunting scenes. • As farming practices grew, more land was cleared to create more crops. • Megaliths-stone burial chambers, calendar circle, and stones that frame the rising sun. EX: Stonehenge marked celestial bodies • towns of Jericho and Catal Hüyük had Plastered , rectangular rooms w/wide doorways opened to centered courtyards • 7000-5000 BCE Catal Hüyük- entered through hole in roof, contiguous wall, no windows or doors w/ elaborate Wall painting - hunting scenes • Fossilized animal bones were used as butchering tools. • Clay pots were used for cooking meat and vegetables. • Some cave paintings represent efforts of counting and writing. • Ground stone heads to work the soil • Sharp stone chips on wooden bone handles to cut grass • Stone mortars to pulverize grain • Blades and axes were used as well. • From 2600 BCE ox drawn wooden plows were used • Obsidian tools (volcanic rock) turned into weapons, mirrors, and ornaments. • Fine pottery, wove baskets, woolen cloth, stone and shell beads, and worked leather and wood. • Metalworking in copper, gold, lead, and silver • Trade of ideas and techniques between regions occurred. • People began growing Grains, Wheat and barley, Rice, Beans, tomatoes, yams, potatoes, etc. • Number of wild game species declined but were replaced with others. • A number of animals were being domesticated for agricultural purposes....
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- Spring '09
- Land, Notes Chapter, Catal Huyuk, relatively advanced knowledge