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Unformatted text preview: Notes Chapter: 1 P Politics I Intellectual R Religion A Art and Architecture T Technology E Economics S Society Culture: Neolithic Gender roles were different then as well:- Women gathered and looked after children- The strong men would lead the hunt Farmers began to fight non-farmers for the best land Matriarchal rule. Kikuyu men (Kenya) overthrew by conspiring to impregnate all the women making them weak. Gatherers learned which plants were edible and ripened, plants good for medicine, consciousness, altering, dyeing, etc. Hunters learned the habits of game. Hunting powerful force rather than farming- men buried with weapons and art depicted hunt scenes Many animals were domesticated and used as meat and a source of milk. Special graves showed evidence that the people believed in an afterlife. Old people received intricate burials. Sacred groves, springs, and wild animals. Rituals centered around Mother Earth (deity of the source of new life), powerful male Sky God, and divinities of fire wind and rain. Catal Hyk-- Religious shrine for every two houses- Female dominated- Bulls, breasts, handprints, leopards, goddesses adorn shrines- Plump female deities outnumbered male deities- Cult priestesses buried in shrines Many cave painting depict hunting scenes. As farming practices grew, more land was cleared to create more crops. Megaliths-stone burial chambers, calendar circle, and stones that frame the rising sun. EX: Stonehenge marked celestial bodies towns of Jericho and Catal Hyk had Plastered , rectangular rooms w/wide doorways opened to centered courtyards 7000-5000 BCE Catal Hyk- entered through hole in roof, contiguous wall, no windows or doors w/ elaborate Wall painting - hunting scenes Fossilized animal bones were used as butchering tools. Clay pots were used for cooking meat and vegetables. Some cave paintings represent efforts of counting and writing. Ground stone heads to work the soil Sharp stone chips on wooden bone handles to cut grass Stone mortars to pulverize grain Blades and axes were used as well. From 2600 BCE ox drawn wooden plows were used Obsidian tools (volcanic rock) turned into weapons, mirrors, and ornaments. Fine pottery, wove baskets, woolen cloth, stone and shell beads, and worked leather and wood. Metalworking in copper, gold, lead, and silver Trade of ideas and techniques between regions occurred. People began growing Grains, Wheat and barley, Rice, Beans, tomatoes, yams, potatoes, etc. Number of wild game species declined but were replaced with others. A number of animals were being domesticated for agricultural purposes....
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- Spring '09