APWH Notes Ch. 18 - Political Plantatio n in W. Indies...

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Political Economy Social Intellect Plantatio n in W. Indies -English colonization societies founded European settlements on Montserrat, Barbados, & other Caribbean islands-b/c of greater support from gov., English colonies prospered 1 st , largely growing tobacco for export -Barbados became wealthiest & most populous of England’s American colonies -W Indies surpassed Brazil as world’s principal source of sugar by 1700 -Caribbean colonies were in competition from VA-grown tobacco, which was cultivated by indentured servants -PORTUGUESE COLONIES introduced sugar cultivation into Brazil from islands along African coast after 1550 & introduced enslaved African labor as well--- by 1600, Brazil was Atlantic world’s greatest sugar producer, & once the Portuguese were free from Spanish rule in 1640 the crown turned its attention to reconquering their stolen lands from the Dutch---Portuguese armies drove Dutch sugar planters from Brazil, but some of the planters transplanted their capital & knowledge of sugar production to smaller Caribbean colonies - Dutch W. India Company’s entry into African slave trade combined economic & political motives. It seized W. African trading station of Elmina from Portuguese & took port of Luanda of Angolan coast. Elmina remained the Dutch’s W. India Company’s HQ in W. Africa- Dutch infusion of expertise & money revived French colonies of Martinique & Guadeloupe, but English colony of Barbados illustrates dramatic transformation that sugar brought to 17 th century Caribbean -settlers introduced sugar-cane cultivation into W Indies shortly after 1500, but fell into neglect as attention shifted into colonizing American mainland -After 1600 northern Europeans were interested in growing tobacco and other crops -Barbados’s economy depended largely on tobacco, mostly grown by European settlers [free & indentured] during 1640s: by 1680s, sugar had become colony’s principal crop & enslaved Africans were 3x as numerous as Europeans - tobacco -New World leaf, used by Amerindians for recreations, & medicine, was finding new market among 17 th century Europeans: the French & English population on several tobacco islands grew during 1630- 1640 -2 changes improved colonies’ prospects of growing tobacco: one was formation of chartered companies , a group of investors who paid an annual fee to France or England in exchange for a monopoly over trade to W. Indies colonies & the other was companies
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APWH Notes Ch. 18 - Political Plantatio n in W. Indies...

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