APWH Notes Ch. 25 - Chapter 25 Notes The Ottoman Empire...

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Chapter 25 Notes The Ottoman Empire Ottoman Empire collapsing in the 18 th cent ; Saud Fam. in Arabia led by Muhammad ibn Abd al-Wahhab too over Mecca & Medina & deprived sultan of organizing annual pilgrimage to Mecca; Mamluks came back as an opposing force; Janissary corps wielded great power in Istanbul Egypt and the Napoleonic Example 1798-1840 May 1798 French generals in Egypt tried to govern but blockades by the British forced them to withdraw in 1801 leading Egypt in a power vaccum Muhammad Ali he replaced the official Ottoman he deprived the Mamluks of land and privileges Ali adopted French practices & adopted conscription forcing peasants into the army after he took back Mecca & Medina leaving him with many lost troops He established schools for artillery & cavalry officers, army surgeons, military bandmasters, & others. Schools based off of European curricula & Ali sent Turks and Cirassians to France to learn 1 st Islam world newspaper started in 1824 by Ali Ali made factories to provide 4 army although they weren’t efficient enough; $$ gained by taking land from Muslim religious institutions by saying that French occupation canceled religious trust & from farmers who were forced to sell their crops to the gov @ fixed prices 1830s In response, the Ottoman sultan began building a new army in 1826; these armies met in 1839 w/ Egypt winning. Istanbul would have been destroyed had Europe not intervened 1841 Ali’s army & navy limited, his economic monopolies dissolved & Europeans could undertake businesses in Egypt as punishment Ali remained in power until 1849 Ottoman Reform and the European Model 1807-1853 Sultan Selim III introduced reforms for a more European military, to bring provincial governors under central gov The janissaries , Christian boys taken from the Balkans & forced into the Ottoman army 4 life, became a significant poli force in Istanbul & in provincial capitals like Baghdad & they resisted the formation of the new military units b/c of economic privileges Uprising in Serbia: an Ottoman provincial capital governed by the janissaries, started after residents complained saying that the janissaries abused them. Selim threatened to move the janissaries to Istanbul & they took it as a threat to their power, so they revolted in 1805 killing the Christians in Serbia Ottomans joined Bosnia to try and suppress the rebellion, but threat of Russian intervention kept Ottomans from
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This note was uploaded on 12/15/2009 for the course SCN 12349398t taught by Professor Phalange during the Spring '09 term at Aberystwyth University.

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APWH Notes Ch. 25 - Chapter 25 Notes The Ottoman Empire...

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