APWH Notes Ch. 26 - Shreya Maddireddy Houghton 6th Chapter:...

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Shreya Maddireddy Houghton 6 th Chapter: 26 EQ: How did the new technologies and industries that appeared between 1850 and 1900 affect the world economy? 1. The use of railroads had spread to almost every industrializing country and to anywhere else that would benefit business/government. Railroads that were longer than 20,000 miles were constructed in Britain, France, and Germany. P. 682 2. The advancement of steel (special form of iron both hard and elastic) was helped by William Kelly in the 1850s when he discovered that air forced through a molten pig iron by powerful pumps turn the iron into steel without extra fuel. Later on, people developed cheaper methods which resulted in a rise from half- million tons in 1870 to 28 million in 1900 in world steel production. The chemistry industry also underwent a similar process P. 683 3. Electricity is another example as it changed lives drastically. By the 1870s, inventors had modified costly methods into generators that turned mechanical energy into electrical currents. This became more efficient than steam powered engines or water power. P. 684 4. World trade expanded tenfold between 1850-1913. Because the cost of steamships were more efficient, the cost of freight dropped between 50-95% easy to send cheap and heavy products long distances. The global economy experienced growing interdependence largely because of the financial power of Great Britain. P. 685 1. Between 1850-1900 railroads expanded immensely around the world, especially the countries of U.S (35,000 miles), Britain (20,000 miles), Japan, India (built by British), South Africa, Mexico, Argentina, Egypt. Cities grew, and provided employment opportunities. Also, construction impacted the environment as it consumed timber and other resources as well as deforestation. 2. Steel became cheap and there was enough of it to construct rails, bridges, ships and “tin” cans meant to be used once and thrown away. Chemistry also helped develop explosives like nitroglycerin and later, dynamite. This was used in mining and construction of railroads and canals (Suez Canal).The development of these industries incorporated science/technology into daily life however, the environment paid the price. Railroad locomotives filled air with coal smoke and other forms of pollution. 3. In 1879, the invention of the incandescent lamp by Thomas Edison in the U.S led to the world’s 1 st electrical distribution network in New York City in 1882. Forms of electricity included electric streetcars subways reducing traffic jams in large cities in Europe and North America. Also steam engines and power belts were replaced by electric motors which improved productivity and safety. Engineers eventually used waterpower to produce electricity which led to building of hydroelectric plants 4. The economics of Europe and North America grew more diverse and prosperous and industries mass produced consumer goods for middle/working class like soap, canned/packaged foods, ready-
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This note was uploaded on 12/15/2009 for the course SCN 12349398t taught by Professor Phalange during the Spring '09 term at Aberystwyth University.

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APWH Notes Ch. 26 - Shreya Maddireddy Houghton 6th Chapter:...

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