Lecture 3 - Global Climate Heat Transport Processes Summary...

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Global Climate - Heat Transport Processes Earth Heat in Heat out incoming short wavelength energy from the sun (UV, visible, near IR, wavelength = 0.2-1.0 μ m) balanced by outgoing long wavelength energy (far infrared, wavelength =10-15 μ m) average temperature (heat content) is constant steady-state condition Summary of last lecture
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Greenhouse Effect / Global Heat Budget So far, we have considered only long term averages with equal heat absorption and emission over the whole surface of the earth. This is a good place to start, but is clearly unrealistic . What factors lead to uneven heat gain and loss at different places on the surface of the earth?
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Global Climate - Heat Transport Processes The earth and moon receive the same energy from the sun but the earth is ~ 50ºC warmer because of: the presence of an atmosphere Summary absorbs some incoming solar UV energy protective effect (ozone) small effect absorbs more outgoing IR energy the “greenhouse effect” (CO 2 , H 2 O) the largest effect
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Greenhouse Effect / Global Heat Budget Because the earth is a sphere, the sun’s light hits the surface of the earth at different angles, depending on latitude.
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Greenhouse Effect / Global Heat Budget In the tropics, the sun is nearly overhead and the rate of energy absorption per unit area is high. High heat input in tropics
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Greenhouse Effect / Global Heat Budget Near the poles, the sun is nearly on the horizon and the rate of energy absorption per unit area is low. Low heat input at the poles
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Global Climate - Heat Transport Processes Average solar input = 2 calories / cm 2 min at the poles 0.1 cal / cm 2 min at the equator 10 cal / cm 2 min Variations in solar input with latitude
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Greenhouse Effect / Global Heat Budget Average annual heat gain and loss from the earth Heat input from sun Heat lost from Earth
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Greenhouse Effect / Global Heat Budget In the tropics, more heat is absorbed than is lost net heat gain At the poles, more heat is lost than is absorbed net heat loss Can only be explained by heat transport from the tropics to the poles
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Global Climate - Heat Transport Processes energy received energy lost heat transport from tropics to poles
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Lecture 3 - Global Climate Heat Transport Processes Summary...

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