1 - Genetic Engineering Genetic Engineering Genetic...

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Unformatted text preview: Genetic Engineering Genetic Engineering Genetic Engineering Genetic Engineering The transfer of genetic information to an The organism to introduce a desirable trait organism Result is called a Transgenic organism or Result Genetically Modified Organism (GMO) Genetically Genetic Engineering Genetic Engineering Are GMO’s (genetically modified organisms) safe? Are they necessary/ what are potential benefits pf Are gene modification? gene What are the techniques used to alter the genome What of an organism? of Are the techniques by which they are created Are safe? safe? Applications of Genetic Engineering Applications of Genetic Engineering Most examples of GMO’s are in plant systems/agriculture Some medical/human examples, largely at the testing stage Plant Examples of GMO’s Plant Examples of GMO’s Herbicide tolerance­ potential to decrease spraying of herbicides Pesticides in plants­ decrease spraying of pesticides Stress Tolerance­ resistance to environmental stresses Altering quality of food­ nutrition, aesthretic quality Animal GMO’s Animal GMO’s Transgenic Mice­ used for research into human diseases BioSteel­ gene for silk from spiders inserted into goat eggs­ goats developed then produce protein in milk which can be harvested and used as fiber­ lightweight and extremely strong Transgenic Salmon­ grow to market size in half the time of non­transformed Medical Examples Medical Examples Gene Therapy Production of Insulin and other drugs Vaccines Genetic Engineering Genetic Engineering The transfer of genetic information to an The organism to introduce a desirable trait organism Result is called a Transgenic organism or Result Genetically Modified Organism (GMO) Genetically Phenotypes and Genotypes Phenotypes and Genotypes Phenotype is the physical appearance of the Phenotype organism- physical traits organismThese traits are inheritable-passed on to These offspring as individuals sexually reproducereproduceNatural Selection Through breeding programs desirable traits can be selected and passed on to offspring- Artificial Selection offspringNovel hybrids can be created Brassica Oleracea Brassica Is Genetic engineering merely accelerating traditional breeding processes? traditional One difference - Genetic Engineering can One cross the species boundary- introduce genes from different species into an organism organism Phenotypes and Genotypes Phenotypes and Genotypes The genetic makeup of an individual is the The Genotype- The genotype determines the phenotype phenotype The information which leads to a phenotype is The contained within the Chromosomes contained Genes- region of the chromosome which carries Genesthe information for one trait the DNA- Deoxyribonucleic Acid- chemical structure of DNAa gene gene Sexually reproductive individuals have 2 Sexually sets of chromosomes (or a multiple of 2)Diploid Diploid 2 copies of each gene- one from each copies parent parent The expression of these genes determines The the phenotype the Chromosomes are found in the nuclei of cells cells It is the expression of genes in cells which It will ultimately determine the complexity of an organism an Cells­ The Unit of Life Cells­ The Unit of Life Organisms are made up of Cells Cells are organized into tissues Tissues into Organs Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes- 2 basic Prokaryotes branches of life branches Prokaryotes Prokaryotes “Simplest” forms of life Bacteria Cyanobacteria Lack complexity of Eukaryotes Eukaryotes Eukaryotes More Organized and complex Organelles- membrane bound structures Organellessuch as Nucleus, chloroplasts, mitochondria mitochondria Cells Cells Cells Divide, Expand and then become Cells Specialized Specialized Totipotency-All cells contain the same genetic Totipotency-All Information Information Cells fate is determined by expression of Genes Stem cells- Fate not yet determined, can be Stem manipulated manipulated Differentiation Differentiation Differentiation- Development of a cell into a specific cell type specific Activation of certain genes results in Activation specialization specialization Mitosis Mitosis As cells divide, Chromosomes are As duplicated and passed on to daughter cells by the process of mitosis cells Meiosis Meiosis Meiosis- The process by which cells divide Meiosisto form gametes. to Gametes (sperm and egg) contain half the Gametes number of chromosomes. Genetic makeup of gametes is variable Genetic During Sexual Reproduction, the full During complement of genetic material is restored complement Genes contain information, which is passed on to offspring on The information itself codes for the The production of Proteins which are either structural or enzymes which catalyze the chemical reactions of life. chemical ...
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