3 - Genotypes and Phenotypes Genotypes and Phenotypes All...

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Unformatted text preview: Genotypes and Phenotypes Genotypes and Phenotypes All the genetic Material makes up the All Genotype of an Organism Genotype Phenotype is the physical appearance of the Phenotype organism- physical traits organismThese traits are inheritable-passed on to These offspring offspring Cells­ The Unit of Life Cells­ The Unit of Life Organisms are made up of Cells Cells are organized into tissues Tissues into Organs Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes- 2 basic Prokaryotes branches of life branches Prokaryotes Prokaryotes “Simplest” forms of life Bacteria Cyanobacteria Lack complexity of Eukaryotes Eukaryotes Eukaryotes More Organized and complex Organelles- membrane bound structures Organellessuch as Nucleus, chloroplasts, mitochondria mitochondria Cells Cells Cells Divide, Expand and then become Cells Specialized Specialized Gene expression plays a role in determining cell Gene fate fate Stem cells- Fate not yet determined, can be Stem manipulated manipulated Totipotency-All cells contain the same genetic Totipotency-All Information Information Differentiation Differentiation Differentiation- Development of a cell into a specific cell type specific Activation of certain genes results in Activation specialization specialization Mitosis Mitosis As cells divide, Chromosomes are As duplicated and passed on to daughter cells by the process of mitosis cells Meiosis Meiosis Meiosis- The process by which cells divide Meiosisto form gametes. to Gametes (sperm and egg) contain half the Gametes number of chromosomes. Genetic makeup of gametes is variable Genetic During Sexual Reproduction, the full During complement of genetic material is restored complement Genes contain information, which is passed on to offspring on The information itself codes for the The production of Proteins which are either structural or enzymes which catalyze the chemical reactions of life. chemical The information which leads to a phenotype is contained within the Chromosomes is Genes- region of the chromosome which Genescarries the information for one trait carries DNA- Deoxyribonucleic Acid- chemical DNAstructure of a gene structure Genes contain information, which is passed on to offspring on The information itself codes for the The production of Proteins which are either structural or enzymes which catalyze the chemical reactions of life. chemical DNA­ Deoxyribonucleic Acid DNA­ Deoxyribonucleic Acid - Nucleotides- Sugar, phosphate and a Nucleotidesnitrogenous base nitrogenous - Double stranded molecule - Adenine, Guanine- Purines, Cytosine Adenine, and Thymine-Pyrimidines and - Base Pairing is key- A-T and C-G links Base strands strands - Sequence of bases down strand is the Sequence key- information for coding proteins key- Replication of DNA Replication of DNA - Semi- conservative- one strand retained Semiwhen DNA is copied when DNA to Protein­ Transcription and DNA to Protein­ Transcription and Translation RNA- Ribonuceic Acid- Different sugar, RNAone different base one Messenger RNA (mRNA)- carries Messenger information from DNA to cytoplasm for translation into protein- single stranded translation Transcription- Transfer of information from TranscriptionDNA to mRNA DNA mRNA is Modified mRNA Introns- non coding regions are spliced out Introns(removed) (removed) Exons- actual coding regions remain Cap and poly-A tail added for recognition by Cap ribosome ribosome Translation Translation Synthesis of protein via transfer RNA Synthesis (tRNA) (tRNA) 3 base pairs codes for one Amino acid, base called a codon called Protein- a chain of Amino Acids ...
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This note was uploaded on 12/16/2009 for the course BIOPL 2400 taught by Professor Silva,t. during the Fall '08 term at Cornell University (Engineering School).

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