8 - DNA is in the nucleus Protein Synthesis occurs in the...

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Unformatted text preview: DNA is in the nucleus Protein Synthesis occurs in the Cytoplasm The Information must be moved from the Nucleus to the Cytoplasm DNA to Protein­ Transcription and DNA to Protein­ Transcription and Translation RNA- Ribonuceic Acid- Different sugar, RNAone different base one Messenger RNA (mRNA)- carries Messenger information from DNA to cytoplasm for translation into protein- single stranded translation Transcription- Transfer of information from TranscriptionDNA to mRNA DNA mRNA is Modified mRNA Introns- non coding regions are spliced out Introns(removed) (removed) Exons- actual coding regions remain Cap and poly-A tail added for recognition by Cap ribosome ribosome Translation Translation Synthesis of protein via transfer RNA Synthesis (tRNA) (tRNA) 3 base pairs codes for one Amino acid, base called a codon called Protein- a chain of Amino Acids Occurs out in the cytoplasm at ribosomes mRNA travels from nucleus to cytoplasm Control of Gene Expression Control of Gene Expression Promoter regions can determine whether or not a gene is activated Cis elements and Trans factors Cis elements­ regions of DNA to which trans factors bind Regulatory genes code for trans factors that activate other genes Promoters can be constituative­ always on Promoters can be constituative­ always on Promoters can become active at stages of development Can become active under certain environmental conditions Can be useful for genetic engineering Transforming an Organism Transforming an Organism Find your gene of interest Make lots of copies of your gene­ cloning Insert it into genome of organism Determine if gene is functional Regenerate organism Genetic Engineering Genetic Engineering Find your Gene of Interest Protein/mRNA—reverse transcriptase and cDNA Reverse Transcriptase­ viral enzyme makes DNA from RNA­called cDNA Related Gene/ from other organism Find your gene in a library Make a Library Make a Library Library­ collection of fragments of genome Genomic Library—Restriction enzymes cDNA Library Insert genes into Plasmids and grow in bacteria Find your gene of interest in fragments Clone it in bacteria­ make lots of copies Restriction Enzymes Restriction Enzymes Cut DNA with sticky ends­ useful for splicing fragments together Genomic Library Genomic Library Cut DNA into lots of pieces Insert Pieces into plasmids Insert plasmids into Bacteria Grow Bacteria and Multiply fragments Probe cloned fragments to find your gene Bacterial Genome Bacterial Genome Bacteria have a single circular chromosome Also contain plasmids­ small circular DNA which are transferred during conjugation­ genetic recombination ...
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