si688f09-Week3-Attn

si688f09-Week3-Attn - Attention, Interruptibility, and...

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Attention, Interruptibility, and Perihpheral Displays Mark W. Newman SI 688 September 28,
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Agenda Reflections on Wiki comments Lecture: Theories of Attention Research in Interruptibility Peripheral Display Overview of Assignment #1 In-class discussion Connect the readings In-class assignment Design an in-dash system for peripheral information awareness
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Overview of Attention To take in information, people must attend to it What will people be able/likely to notice? (See Week 2) What are the limitations of attention? How do people choose among multiple sources of information? How do people concentrate on a single source in order to extract information? How do people balance among multiple sources to extract information from each? What are the dominant theories of human attention?
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The Searchlight Metaphor People can only focus on “one thing at a time” Switching attention is like moving the light Light picks up wanted and unwanted information http://www.hqcompany.com/index.ph signal noise
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The Limits of Attention Selective Attention How do people choose what to pay attention to? What are the limits on the choice they can exercise? Focused Attention How effectively can people maintain focus on an information source? What are the limits on people’s ability to remain focused? Divided Attention How effectively can people monitor multiple sources of information? What are the limits on multitasking?
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Selective Attention Optimal selection: maximize performance on task without wasting energy People try to maximize expected value or minimize expected cost Beliefs about the likelihood of valuable information Beliefs about the rate of change when presented with a schedule, people perform better Attention fixation is used as a proxy for imperfect memory When stressed or aroused good at selective attention (tend to choose the most important things) better at focused attention (more able to shut out extraneous info) worse at divided attention (fewer information sources
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Selective Attention People do pretty well What makes it go wrong? Likelihood of valuable information: previously useless source of information suddenly has value Rate of change: information appears off-rhythm or rhythm suddenly changes Inefficient use of memory: excessive use of working memory Warning!
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Focused Attention Channel All events within a channel must be processed in parallel Events on separate channels MUST be processed serially Recall parallel vs. serial perceptual processing from last week Channel structure Visual: spatial separation (2D) Visual: depth (3D) Auditory: spatial separation (stereo or surround) Auditory: pitch parallel serial
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Focused Attention Design for parallel processing close together (1° of visual angle) aspects of a single object
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si688f09-Week3-Attn - Attention, Interruptibility, and...

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