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chapter 5 web notes adp

chapter 5 web notes adp - ChapterFiveReview...

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Adolescent Psychology Chapter Five Review Sex refers to the biological status of being male or female while gender refers to social  categories of male and female.  Adolescent boys and girls in traditional cultures often have different lives and spend little  time together. The expectations for their behavior as adolescents and the work they do  as adults are sharply divided. In cultures where socialization is narrow, it tends to be  narrowest with respect to gender expectations.  Girls in traditional cultures typically work alongside their mothers from a young age and  by adolescence they can contribute equal amounts of work. Girls typically maintain a  close relationship with their mothers. In adolescence, socialization stays narrow or  becomes even narrower for girls, their budding sexuality is likely to be tightly restricted,  and there is a focus on preparing for marriage or gender-specific adult work.  For boys, manhood is something that has to be achieved and the attainment of manhood  is often fraught with peril and carries a possibility of failure. In most cultures an  adolescent boy must demonstrate three capacities before he can be considered a man:  provide, protect, and procreate. Manhood requirements involve not just the acquisition of  skills in these three areas but also the development of certain character qualities that  must accompany the skills.  Adolescent girls in the 18 th  and 19 th  centuries were narrowly constricted in terms of  occupational roles, cultural perceptions of them as fragile and innocent, sexuality, and  physical appearance. However, these girls also benefited from the existence of a wide  range of voluntary organizations in which women provided a “protective umbrella” for  their nurturance.  During the 17 th  and 18 th  centuries there was a phase of communal manhood in which  gender expectations for boys were focused on preparing them for adult role  responsibilities in work and marriage. The 19 th  century was the era of self-made manhood  in which males were increasingly expected to become independent from their families. 
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