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Chapter Nine Review Today, dating tends to be much less formal. Adolescent boys and girls still go together to events,  but they are much more likely than before to spend time together informally. Dating tends to be  even less formal in European societies than in American society. In non-Western cultures, dating is  rare.  American adolescents begin dating earlier today. Dating behavior tends to follow a sequence. First,  same-gender groups go to places where they hope to find other-gender groups. Next, adolescents  take part in social gatherings arranged by adults that include interactions between genders. In the  third step, mixed-gender groups arrange to go to events together. Finally, adolescent couples begin  to date as pairs. Biological maturity has little effect on the timing of beginning to date.  Adolescents report dating for recreation, learning, status, companionship, intimacy, and courtship  although these reasons for dating change as they enter emerging adulthood. What adolescents  look for in a romantic partner also changes with age, at least for boys. Males still follow a proactive  dating script while females follow a reactive script. Dating is generally associated with positive  development in adolescence.  Sternberg proposes that there are three fundamental qualities of love: passion, intimacy, and  commitment. These qualities can be combined into seven different forms of love: liking, infatuation,  empty love, romantic love, companionate love, fatuous love, and consummate love. The absence  of long-term commitment means that there are two principal types of adolescent love: infatuation  and romantic love.  Feelings of passion appear to be a virtually universal characteristic of young people. Romantic love  as the basis for marriage is a fairly new cultural idea—in most cultures throughout most of history  parents have arranged marriages, with little regard for the passionate desires of their adolescents.  People of all ages tend to have romantic relationships with people who are similar to them. Social  scientists attribute this to consensual validation.  Much like parental attachment, romantic partners try to maintain regular proximity to each other,  seek each other out for comfort, and use one another as a “secure base.” Extended separation is  distressful and the loss of the person is deeply painful. Attachment styles between loves have been  found to resemble parent-child attachment styles and may be based on earlier attachments to  parents. Attachments may be more likely to develop in emerging adulthood. 
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