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Unformatted text preview: Chapter 1: The Nature of Chemistry 2 End-of-Chapter Solutions for Chapter 1 Questions for Review and Thought Review Questions 1. The structure of a molecule refers to the way atoms are connected together in the molecule and to the three dimensional arrangement of the atoms relative to one another. Structure is important because it is the key to the properties and reactivity of a molecule. 2. The large enzyme molecules have a three dimensional structure, including pockets where various molecules fit. The shape and orientation of these pockets dictate what drugs are able to activate or inhibit an enzyme's function. 3. Quantitative observations of a piece of electronics must include numerical information; whereas qualitative observations do not involve numerical details. For example, on a CD player: Quantitative observations might include the number of disks it can hold, the number of speakers it has, the distance each of those speakers are from the unit, the length of the wires to the speakers, the various control settings (volume, bass, treble, speaker balance, etc.), the power supply requirements, etc. The qualitative observations might include the color of the unit, the types of control buttons or knobs, the quality of the sound, the location in the room, the purpose for which it is used, etc. 4. A scientific law (a) summarizes and explains a wide range of experimental results, (b) has not been contradicted by experiments, and (c) is capable of predicting unknown results. Some laws are described in Atomic Theory. Two of these laws are: the law of conservation of mass (There is no detectable change in mass during an ordinary chemical reaction.) and the law of constant composition (A chemical compound always contains the same elements in the same proportion by mass.). 5. A theory is a unifying principle that explains a body of facts and the laws based on them hence a theory is our reason for believing in the law; whereas a law gives just a summary conclusion of a wide range of experimental results. Models are used to make theories more concrete, often in physical or mathematical form hence a model is our way of looking at the theory in detail. 6. The statement paclitaxel assumes the shape of a letter T when attached to tubulin is a theory. The statement is based on observation using a molecular model, which incorporates all the theoretical understanding of atoms relative sizes and observed bonding configurations, to predict the overall appearance of the molecule. 7. Chemists build the bridge between the nanoscale world into the microscale world. The details of the nanoscale world often profoundly affect the activity of a chemical in the micro- and macroscopic worlds. A specific example is the determination of the mechanism of paclitaxel activity in the search for improved anticancer drugs....
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