bactGeneticAnalysis

bactGeneticAnalysis - Genetic Analysis in Bacteria Chapter...

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1 Genetic Analysis in Bacteria Chapter 15
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2 Outline General overview of bacteria The bacterial genome Chromosome Plasmids Genes and phenotypes Nomenclature Gene transfer in bacteria Transformation Conjugation F Factor Hfr strains and mapping F’ plasmids Bacteriophages and transduction Bacteriophages and lysogeny Generalized transduction Specialized transduction
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3 A family tree of living organisms Fig. 15.1 Eubacteria Archaea Eukaryota
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4 Diversity of bacteria Outnumber all other organisms on Earth Diversity: Smallest – 200 nanometers in diameter Largest – 500 micrometers in length (10 billion times larger than the smallest bacteria) Habitats range from land, to aquatic, to parasitic. Remarkable metabolic diversity allows bacteria to live almost anywhere
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5 Common features of bacteria Lack defined nuclear membrane Lack membrane-bound organelles Usually circular chromosome(s) that form a nucleoid body Most have a cell wall
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6 Escherichia coli : a model bacteria Inhabitant of intestines in warm blooded animals (including humans) Can grow both with and without oxygen Laboratory strains are not pathogenic Prototrophic – makes all the enzymes it needs for amino acid and nucleotide synthesis Grows on minimal media containing glucose as the only carbon source Divides about once every hour in minimal media and every 20 minutes in enriched media Rapid multiplication makes it possible to observe very rare genetic events: Produces up to 10 9 cells per ml in the liquid culture and at the level of 10 8 -10 9 cells per colony on plates
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7 The bacterial genome is usually composed of one circular chromosome 4-5 Mb long Condenses by supercoiling and looping into a densely packed nucleoid body Chromosomes replicate inside cell and cell divides by binary fission Fig. 15.4 b
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8 E. coli lysed to release chromosome Fig. 15.4 a
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9 PLASMIDS:
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bactGeneticAnalysis - Genetic Analysis in Bacteria Chapter...

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