chrTheoryInheritance - The Chromosome Theory of Inheritance...

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1 The Chromosome Theory of Inheritance
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2 Evidence that Genes Reside in the Nucleus 1667 – Anton van Leeuwenhoek Microscopist Semen contains spermatozoa (sperm animals). Hypothesized that sperm enter egg to achieve fertilization 1854-1874 – confirmation of fertilization through union of eggs and sperm Recorded frog and sea urchin fertilization using microscopy and time-lapse drawings and micrographs
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3 Evidence that Genes Reside in Chromosomes 1880s – innovations in microscopy and staining techniques identified thread-like structures Provided a means to follow movement of chromosomes during cell division Mitosis – two daughter cells contained same number of chromosomes as parent cell (somatic cells) Meiosis – daughter cells contained half the number of chromosomes as the parents (sperm and eggs)
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4 One Chromosome Pair Determines an Individual’s Sex. Walter Sutton – Studied great lubber grasshopper Parent cells contained 22 chromosomes plus an X and a Y chromosome. Daughter cells contained 11 chromosomes and X or Y in equal numbers.
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5 After fertilization Cells with XX were females. Cells with XY were males. Great lubber grasshopper ( Brachystola magna ) Fig. 4.5
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6 Sex chromosome Provide basis for sex determination One sex has matching pair. Other sex has one of each type of chromosome. Photomicrograph of human X and Y chromosome Fig. 4.6a
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7
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8 diploid vs haploid cell in Drosophila melanogaster Fig. 4.2
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9 The number and shape of chromosomes vary from species to species. Organism n 2n Drosophila melanogaster 4 8 Drosophila obscura 5 10 Drosophila virilus 6 12 Peas 7 14 Macaroni wheat 14 28 Giant sequoia trees 11 22 Goldfish 47 94 Dogs 39 78 Humans 23 46
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10 Anatomy of a chromosome Metaphase chromosomes are classified by the position of the centromere Fig. 4.3
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11 Homologous chromosomes match in size, shape, and banding patterns. Homologous chromosomes (homologs)
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This note was uploaded on 12/17/2009 for the course BIO 2354 taught by Professor Brockett during the Spring '08 term at Georgia Institute of Technology.

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chrTheoryInheritance - The Chromosome Theory of Inheritance...

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