genomics - Genomics Chapter 10 Reconstructing the Genome...

Info icon This preview shows pages 1–10. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Genomics Chapter 10 Reconstructing the Genome Chapter 11 Comparison of Individual Genomes
Image of page 1

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
The genomes of living organisms vary enormously in size
Image of page 2
“Divide and conquer” strategy meets most challenges Chromosomes are broken into small overlapping pieces and cloned Ends of clones sequenced and reassembled into original chromosome strings Each piece is sequenced multiple times to reduce error rate 10-fold sequence coverage achieves a rate of error less than 1/10,000
Image of page 3

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Fig. 10.2
Image of page 4
Techniques for mapping and cloning Cloning Library of DNA fragments 500 – 1,000,000 bp Insert into one of a variety of vectors Hybridization Location of a particular DNA sequence within the library of fragments PCR amplification Direct amplification of a particular region of DNA ranging from 1 bp to > 20kb DNA sequencing Automated DNA sequencer using Sanger method determines sequences 600-800 bp at a time (NOTE: New improved sequencing techniques are available now.) Computational tools Programs for identifying matches between a particular sequence and a large population of previously sequenced fragments Programs for identifying overlaps of DNA fragments Programs for estimating error rates Programs for identifying genes in chromosomal sequences
Image of page 5

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Making a large scale linkage map Types of DNA polymorphisms used for large-scale mapping: Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) – 1/500 – 1/1000 bp across genome Simple sequence repeats (SSRs) – 1/20-1/40 kb across genome 2-5 nucleotides is repeated 4-50 or more times Most SNPs and SSRs have little or no effect on the organism Serve as DNA markers across the chromosomes Fig. 10.3
Image of page 6
Genome wide identification of genetic markers Initial genetic maps used SSRs which are highly polymorphic Identified by screening DNA libraries with SSR probes Amplified by PCR and length differences assayed SNPs – millions more recently identified by comparison of orthologous regions of cDNA clones from different individuals
Image of page 7

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Homologous – genes with enough sequence similarity to be related somewhere in evolutionary history Orthologous – genes in two different species that arose from the same gene in the two species’ common ancestor Paralogous – arise by duplication within same species Orthologous genes are always homologous, but homologous genes are not always orthologous SOME VOCABULARY
Image of page 8
Physical maps Overlapping DNA fragments ordered and oriented that span each of the chromosomes Based on direct analysis of DNA rather than
Image of page 9

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Image of page 10
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

{[ snackBarMessage ]}

What students are saying

  • Left Quote Icon

    As a current student on this bumpy collegiate pathway, I stumbled upon Course Hero, where I can find study resources for nearly all my courses, get online help from tutors 24/7, and even share my old projects, papers, and lecture notes with other students.

    Student Picture

    Kiran Temple University Fox School of Business ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    I cannot even describe how much Course Hero helped me this summer. It’s truly become something I can always rely on and help me. In the end, I was not only able to survive summer classes, but I was able to thrive thanks to Course Hero.

    Student Picture

    Dana University of Pennsylvania ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    The ability to access any university’s resources through Course Hero proved invaluable in my case. I was behind on Tulane coursework and actually used UCLA’s materials to help me move forward and get everything together on time.

    Student Picture

    Jill Tulane University ‘16, Course Hero Intern