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0220 Complete

0220 Complete - 0220 Mobilization via Islam...

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0220 - Mobilization via Islam Carrie Wickham – Mobilizing Islam: Religion, Activism, and Political Change in  Egypt 4 Dimensions of the political environment 1) the relative openness or closure of the institutionalized political system 2) the stability or instability of the broad set of elite alighments typically undergirding  a polity 3) the presence or absence of elite allies 4) the state’s capacity and propensity for repression As of the spaces available to the opposition actors, it is useful to distinguish among  the center, defined as the national parliamentary arena in which legal political parties  compete   for   power;   the   semiperiphery,   comprising   the   major   occupational   or  professional interest groups; and the periphery, encompassing all other potential  arenas for collective action, including religious institutions, local community, and  youth centers When regular party channels are blocked, other arenas can become important sites  of political contestation. These substitute sites can also permit formally excluded  opposition groups to reach out to the mass public. Parallel Islamic sector: a sector largely independent of the cultural, religious, and  service-oriented arms of the Egyptian state – private mosques, Islamic voluntary  associations, and Islamic for-profit commercial and business enterprises  Source   of   the   construction   of   private   mosques:   voluntary   donations   of   private  Egyptians and financial support from institutional and individual patrons in the Gulf.  In low-income neighborhoods on the periphery of Cairo, where government services  were   scarce   and   networks   of   communal   self-help   were   undeveloped,   the   local  mosque and its satellite institutions often became the focal points of community  social life.  While Egyptian NGOs are subject to state control, any Islamic voluntary associations  operated under the aegis of a mosque or religious foundation, giving them access to  charitable   donations   collected   and   distributed   through   networks   away   from  government supervision. Islamic associations were also funded by their own profit- making activities such as health clinics and hospitals.
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They saw themselves as educating fellow Muslims of their rights and obligations in  Islam and forging new kinds of communal solidarity based on Islamic principles of  charity and self-help. The   institutions   contributed   to   Islamic   mobilization   by   providing   financial   and 
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