06_Europe - T h e E u r o p ea n s The Europeans vs. the...

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Unformatted text preview: T h e E u r o p ea n s The Europeans vs. the Indians There are two things the Europeans brought with them to the Western Hemisphere that significantly shape the history: — P o s t I r o n A g e m e t a l t e c h n o lo g y — D is e a s e The Europeans vs. the Indians P o s t I r o n A g e m e t a l t e c h n o lo g y Blade technology Alloys that hold an edge, esp. steel — Knives, axe heads vs. specialized and fragile tools Kettles that don’t break vs. low quality pottery/wood product containers Guns are not that significant The Europeans vs. the Indians — D is e a s e About 90% of indigenous population died in the immediate post contact period of European introduced disease smallpox (kill rate approx. 75%) measles typhus flus and colds The Europeans vs. the Indians — D is e a s e • Most of the introduced diseases are viral. • All are the byproduct of the domestication of large animals. Cattle, horses, camels, sheep, swine • Almost all domesticatable large animals are Eurasian Horse vs. zebra Cow/water buffalo vs. bison T h e E u r o p ea n B a ck g r o u n d 711 - 1492 External Pressures • T u r k s p u s h in g w e s tw a r d in to E u r o p e – Won’t reach fullest extent until 17th century • A r a b s in I b e r ia – Fullest extent by 711 c.e. – Being pushed out of Iberia 718-1492 • Out of Portugal by 1250 c.e. East-West Contacts • M o n g o lia n E m p ir e c o n tr o ls C h in a a n d e x te n d s w e s t to M o s c o w . • M a r c o P o lo tr a v e ls e a s t to C h in a 1 2 7 1 . – 1277 becomes courtier under Kublai Khan, a Mongolian who founded the Yuan dynasty. – Polo’s account is not published until 1477. – Many Europeans find it impossible to believe. Background in Spain • T h e M o o rs (A rab s) co n q u ered S p a in in 7 1 1 . – They came from what is now Morocco. – This corresponds to the Golden Age of the Arabs – Religiously tolerant. • T h e S p a n is h p u s h e d in to th e n o r th . The Plague • T h e b u b o n ic is a b a c te r ia l d is e a s e c a r r ie d b y th e fl e a s th a t in f e c t r a ts . • I n 1 3 4 8 th e b u b o n ic p la g u e b r o k e o u t in F lo r e n c e . – It came from China, brought by merchants. – It swept northward extending across continental Europe and on to England. – It ended in Russia in 1351. • 2 5 m illio n E u r o p e a n s d ie d . Effects of the Plague • F e u d a lis m c o lla p s e s . – Cities were depopulated creating demand for labor. – Wages rose and peasants left serfdom for the cities • O p e n n e s s to n e w id e a s . – Renaissance begins. Effects of the Plague • The highlands of Spain and Anatolia are unaffected. – The fleas that carry the plague can’t survive in the highlands. • Spanish and Turks rise as military powers in the 1400’s The Turks in Europe • O tto m a n e s ta b lis h e s th e f o u n d a tio n s o f a T u r k is h e m p ir e in th e h ig h la n d s o f A n a to lia in 1 2 8 8 . – Ottomans take Kosovo from the Serbs in 1389. • B y 1 4 0 0 ’ s T u r k s h in d e r E u r o p e a n tr a d e a c c e s s to th e e a s t. Spain • 1 4 9 2 F in a l e x p u ls io n o f A r a b s ( M o o r s ) f r o m S p a in ( a n d E u r o p e ) – Battle of Granada • S p a in is c o n s o lid a te d u n d e r F e r d in a n d a n d I s a b e lla . Spain • Peculiarly Spanish problems include: – F r ic tio n o v e r c e n tr a liz a tio n o f g o v e r n m e n t – T h e d e fi n itio n o f n a tio n a l id e n tity le a d in g to n a tio n a lis tic e x c e s s e s • T h e I n q u is itio n – L a r g e n a tio n a l d e b t f r o m c e n tr a l g o v e r n m e n t b u r e a u c r a c y – L o s s o f fi n a n c ia l in f r a s tr u c tu r e b e c a u s e o f th e e x p u ls io n o f J e w s an d M o o rs The European Problem • C e n tu r ie s o f e n m ity w ith I s la m ic p e o p le s , A rab s an d T u rk s . • T u r k is h c o n tr o l o f th e M id d le E a s t is a fi n a n c ia l b u r d e n o n E u r o p e a n b u s in e s s . • E c o n o m ic p o w e r m o v e s to c o u n tr ie s w ith A tla n tic a c c e s s . – Portugal, Spain, Northern Europe. ...
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This note was uploaded on 12/18/2009 for the course LING 155AC taught by Professor Rhodes during the Fall '09 term at University of California, Berkeley.

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