04_kinship - Kinship Systems Kinship English Kinship...

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Unformatted text preview: Kinship Systems Kinship English Kinship Kinship terms G e n e r a tio n o f e g o S y s te m I s ib lin g p a r e n t’ s c h ild cousin (parent’s)n parent’s (child’s)m child (where n and m ≥ 1), esp. parent’s parent’s child’s child (= parent’s sibling’s child) ( R e m o v a l is c a lc u la te d o n n o r m ) S y s te m I I s is te r b r o th e r s is te r - in - la w b r o th e r - in - la w f e m a le s ib lin g m a le s ib lin g m a te ’ s f e m a le s ib lin g m a te’ s m a le s ib lin g English Kinship F ir s t a s c e n d in g g e n e r a tio n S y s te m I parent ‘immediate ancestor’ female parent male parent parent’s sister; parent’s sibling’s female mate parent’s brother; parent’s sibling’s male mate mate’s female parent mate’s male parent S y s te m I I mother father aunt uncle mother-in-law father-in-law S e c o n d a s c e n d in g g e n e r a tio n S y s te m I grandparent parent’s parent parent’s female parent parent’s male parent parent’s parent’s female sibling; parent’s parent’s sibling’s female mate parent’s parent’s male sibling; parent’s parent’s sibling’s male mate S y s te m I I grandmother grandfather (great)aunt (great)uncle English Kinship F ir s t D e s c e n d in g g e n e r a tio n S y s te m I c h ild ‘ i m m e d ia te o f f s p r in g ’ S y s te m I I d a u g h te r son n ie c e nephew f e m a le c h ild m a le c h ild s ib lin g ’ s f e m a le c h ild s ib lin g ’ s m a le c h ild d a u g h te r - in - la w c h ild ’ s f e m a le m a te s o n - in - la w c h ild ’ s m a le m a te O j ib w e K in s h ip Generation of ego S y s te m I n in d a w e m a a n iik a a n is n iid ig ik o o n h n iin im o s h e n h n iita a w is n in d a a n g o s h e n h n iin im n iita a n in d a a n g w e n h n iin im o k a a n S y s te m I I n im is e n h n is a y e n h n is h iim e n h s ib lin g o f th e o p p o s ite s e x , p a r a lle l c o u s in o f th e o p p o s ite s e x man’s male sibling, man’s male parallel cousin woman’s female sibling, woman’s female parallel cousin c r o s s - c o u s in o f th e o p p o s ite s e x ; lo v e r , s w e e th e a r t man’s male cross-cousin woman’s female cross-cousin s ib lin g - in - la w o f th e o p p o s ite s e x m a n ’ s b r o th e r - in - la w woman’s sister-in-law woman’s brother-in-law (= ‘fake’ niinim) o ld e r f e m a le s ib lin g , o ld e r f e m a le p a r a lle l c o u s in o ld e r m a le s ib lin g , o ld e r m a le p a r a lle l c o u s in y o u n g e r s ib lin g , y o u n g e r p a r a lle l c o u s in O j ib w e K in s h ip n in d a w e m a a n iik a a n is m y s ib lin g o f th e o p p o s ite s e x m y ( m a n ’ s ) m a le s ib lin g n in d a w e m a a n iid ig ik o o n h my (woman’s) female sibling my sibling of the opposite sex O j ib w e K in s h ip Generation of ego S y s te m I n in d a w e m a a s ib lin g o f th e o p p o s ite s e x , p a r a lle l c o u s in o f th e o p p o s ite s e x n iik a a n is man’s male sibling, man’s male parallel cousin n iid ig ik o o n h woman’s female sibling, woman’s female parallel cousin n iin im o s h e n h c r o s s - c o u s in o f t h e o p p o s it e s e x ; lo v e r , s w e e t h e a r t n iita a w is man’s male cross-cousin n in d a a n g o s h e n h w o m a n ’ s f e m a le c r o s s - c o u s in n iin im s ib lin g - in - la w o f th e o p p o s ite s e x n iita a m a n ’ s b r o th e r - in - la w nindaangwenh woman’s sister-in-law n iin im o k a a n woman’s brother-in-law (= ‘fake’ niinim) S y s te m I I n im is e n h n is a y e n h n is h iim e n h o ld e r f e m a le s ib lin g , o ld e r f e m a le p a r a lle l c o u s in o ld e r m a le s ib lin g , o ld e r m a le p a r a lle l c o u s in y o u n g e r s ib lin g , y o u n g e r p a r a lle l c o u s in Cousins (English) Cousins Parent’s siblings’ children Cross Cousins n iita a w is m y ( m a le ) c r o s s - c o u s in n iin im o s h e n h m y ( fe m a le ) c r o s s - c o u s in Man’s cross cousins Cross Cousins n iin im o s h e n h n in d a a n g o s h e n h m y ( m a le ) m y ( fe m a le ) c r o s s - c o u s in c r o s s - c o u s in Woman’s cross cousins O j ib w e K in s h ip Generation of ego S y s te m I n in d a w e m a a n iik a a n is n iid ig ik o o n h n iin im o s h e n h n iita a w is n in d a a n g o s h e n h n iin im n iita a n in d a a n g w e n h n iin im o k a a n S y s te m I I n im is e n h n is a y e n h n is h iim e n h s ib lin g o f th e o p p o s ite s e x , p a r a lle l c o u s in o f t h e o p p o s it e s e x man’s male sibling, man’s male parallel cousin woman’s female sibling, woman’s female parallel cousin c r o s s - c o u s in o f th e o p p o s ite s e x ; lo v e r , s w e e th e a r t man’s male cross-cousin woman’s female cross-cousin s ib lin g - in - la w o f th e o p p o s ite s e x m a n ’ s b r o th e r - in - la w woman’s sister-in-law woman’s brother-in-law (= ‘fake’ niinim) o ld e r f e m a le s ib lin g , o ld e r f e m a le p a r a lle l c o u s in o ld e r m a le s ib lin g , o ld e r m a le p a r a lle l c o u s in y o u n g e r s ib lin g , y o u n g e r p a r a lle l c o u s in Parallel Cousins n iik a a n is n in d a w e m a a n iik a a n is m y b r o th e r m y s is te r m y b r o th e r n in d a w e m a a m y s is te r Ojibwe Kinship F ir s t a s c e n d in g g e n e r a tio n n in g a noos n iz ig o s n iz h is h e n h n in o o s h e n h n im o o s h im e n h m o th e r ( f e m a le p a r e n t) f a th e r ( m a le p a r e n t) c r o s s - a u n t ( m a le p a r e n t ’ s s is te r , f e m a le p a r e n t ’ s s is te r - in - la w ) cross-uncle (female parent’s brother, m a le p a r e n t’ s b r o th e r - in - la w ) parallel aunt (female parent’s sister, m a le p a r e n t’ s s is te r - in - la w ) p a r a lle l u n c le ( m a le p a r e n t ’ s b r o th e r , f e m a le p a r e n t ’ s b r o th e r - in - la w ) S e c o n d a s c e n d in g g e n e r a tio n n o o k o m is n im is h o o m is parent’s female parent, parent’s parent’s female sibling parent’s male parent, parent’s parent’s male sibling Aunts and Uncles n iz ig o s n iz h is h e n h n iz h is h e n h = n in g a o d a w e m a a n c r o s s - u n c l e = m y m o t h e r’ s b r o t h e r Ojibwe Kinship F ir s t a s c e n d in g g e n e r a tio n n in g a noos n iz ig o s n iz h is h e n h n in o o s h e n h n im o o s h im e n h m o th e r ( f e m a le p a r e n t) f a th e r ( m a le p a r e n t) cross-aunt (male parent’s sister, f e m a le p a r e n t ’ s s is te r - in - la w ) c r o s s - u n c le ( f e m a le p a r e n t ’ s b r o th e r , m a le p a r e n t’ s b r o th e r - in - la w ) p a r a lle l a u n t ( f e m a le p a r e n t’ s s is te r , m a le p a r e n t’ s s is te r - in - la w ) parallel uncle (male parent’s brother, f e m a le p a r e n t ’ s b r o th e r - in - la w ) S e c o n d a s c e n d in g g e n e r a tio n n o o k o m is n im is h o o m is parent’s female parent, parent’s parent’s female sibling parent’s male parent, parent’s parent’s male sibling Aunts and Uncles n iz ig o s n iz h is h e n h n im o o s h im e n h n in o o s h e n h n im o o s h im e n h = n o o s o n iik a a n is a n p a r a l l e l u n c l e = m y f a t h e r’ s b r o t h e r K in s h ip a n d M a r r ia g e endogamy defines a group within which marriages must happen exogamy defines a group outside of which marriages must happen clan exogamy marriages must happen between people of different clans K in s h ip a n d M a r r ia g e endogamy defines a group within which marriages must happen Endogamy “rules” in our society — marry within your own “race” e.g., Jewish families Asian families Black/non-black K in s h ip a n d M a r r ia g e exogamy defines a group outside of which marriages must happen Only restriction by families in our society. Language exogamy in the Vaupés region of southern Colombia-northwestern Brazil. Patrilocal marriage pattern means almost all the region’s languages are spoken in every village. K in s h ip a n d M a r r ia g e clan exogamy marriages must happen between people of different clans Once begun in a cross-cousin marriage system clan exogamy is self-perpetuating. Patrilineal system Patrilineal Similarly shaded figures represent members of the same clan. Unshaded figures are unspecified for clan because their clan is irrelevant for calculating the clan membership in the final generation shown. Matrilineal system Similarly shaded figures represent members of the same clan. Unshaded figures are unspecified for clan because their clan is irrelevant for calculating the clan membership in the final generation shown. Simplified tribal organization I . T r ib e ( = s p e a k e r s o f th e s a m e la n g u a g e ) I I . C la n s I I I . ( N u c le a r ) F a m ilie s Kinship Systems • Kinship systems reveal patterns of relationships in a culture. • Kin terms group different kinds of relatives into categories that do not necessarily match from culture to culture. S o m e g e n e r a l k in s h ip t e r m in o lo g y lineal kin those in direct line of descent Lineal Kin Lineal Lineal Kin Lineal Ancestors Lineal Kin Lineal Ancestors Lineal Kin Lineal Lineal Kin Lineal Descendants Lineal Kin Lineal Descendants S o m e g e n e r a l k in s h ip t e r m in o lo g y lineal kin those in direct line of descent consanguineous kin those descended from a common ancestor, but not in direct line of descent Consanguineous Kin Consanguineous Consanguineous Kin Consanguineous Consanguineous Kin Similar to what we call commonly “blood relatives” S o m e g e n e r a l k in s h ip t e r m in o lo g y lineal kin those in direct line of descent consanguineous kin those descended from a common ancestor, but not in direct line of descent affinal kin those related by marriage Affinal Kin Kin S o m e g e n e r a l k in s h ip t e r m in o lo g y lineal kin those in direct line of descent consanguineous kin those descended from a common ancestor, but not in direct line of descent affinal kin those related by marriage complementary kin those to whom kinship is extended by social convention ...
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