05_culture - Cultural Traits Cultural Cultures are not...

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Unformatted text preview: Cultural Traits Cultural Cultures are not merely food, clothing, and art. Different cultures structure their world in different ways. We will mention four ways Euro-American culture differs from native North American cultures. • K in s h ip • O w n e r s h ip • T o b acco • G o ld Cultural categories are reflected in language. Ownership Ownership Ownership Ownership • O w n e r s h ip is a c o m p le x n o tio n w h ic h c a n v a r y f r o m c u ltu r e to c u ltu r e . – How are transfers accomplished • Trade/sale • Inheritance/gift • Claim by right/by abandonment • Rights of use vs. rights of possession (examples) – L e n d in g /r e n tin g – E a s e m e n ts Ownership Ownership • O w n e r s h ip is a c o m p le x n o tio n w h ic h c a n v a r y f r o m c u ltu r e to c u ltu r e . – What is “automatically” usable/transferable • Things consumed in use • Areas/items held in common – What is non-transferable Native American Ownership Native • E x a m in a tio n o f N a tiv e A m e r ic a n p r o to la n g u a g e s s h o w s te r m s f o r – – – – “own” “steal” “lend/borrow” “gamble” • S u c h c o n c e p ts in d ic a te s o m e n o tio n o f tr a n s f e r a b le o w n e r s h ip in d e p e n d e n t o f p h y s ic a l p o s s e s s io n . Ojibwe Ownership • ‘own’ dibendang • ‘steal’ gimoodid • ‘lend’ awihaad – ( f r o m th e c o m m o n la n g u a g e o f th e G r e a t L a k e s A lg o n q u ia n s ) ≠ ‘have/get’ ayaang ≠ ‘rob, take by force’ makandwed – ( f r o m P r o to - A lg o n q u ia n ) – ( f r o m P r o to - A lg o n q u ia n ) • ‘gamble’ atawaad (idiom ‘put something down for someone’) – ( f r o m P r o to - A lg o n q u ia n ) Claims Claims • O w n e r s h ip is a c o m p le x n o tio n w h ic h c a n v a r y f r o m c u ltu r e to c u ltu r e . – How are transfers accomplished • Through “joking” relationships • Rights of use vs. rights of possession Claims Claims • J o k in g r e la tio n s h ip s in A lg o n q u ia n c u ltu r e . – Cross-uncle to cross-nephew. Possible father-in-law Claims Claims • J o k in g r e la tio n s h ip s in A lg o n q u ia n c u ltu r e . – Cross-aunt to cross-niece. Possible mother-in-law Claims Claims • “In plain view” rule. – Item must be in “plain view” to be claimed • Applies to rights of use – T h e P ilg r im s ’ p r o b le m – J o k in g c la im s Claims Claims • “In plain view” rule. – Item must be in “plain view” to be claimed • Probably from hunting caches – K illin g a m o o s e o r c a r ib o u p r e s e n ts a p r o b le m » M u s t b e d o n e in w in te r » F ie ld d r e s s a n d c a c h e – C a c h e h a s to h a v e to c o n tr a d ic to r y p r o p e r tie s » V is ib ility » I n v is ib ility Tobacco Tobacco Tobacco Tobacco • T o b a c c o is a w e s te r n h e m is p h e r e p la n t. – Nicotiana species belong to the same family as Deadly Nightshade. – There are 67 species of Nicotiana. – There are a very few species in the S. Pacific, Australia, and S. Africa. – Most species are indigenous to the Western Hemisphere. Tobacco Tobacco • G iv in g o r s h a r in g to b a c c o e x p r e s s e s – honor and respect – sincerity in social transactions Tobacco Tobacco • I t v e r ifi e s s in c e r ity in – apologies – validation of contracts (= handshake, signature) • origin of the peace pipe • T o b a c c o is , f o r m u c h o f N o r th A m e r ic a , th e m e d iu m o f s o c ia l e x c h a n g e . Gold Gold Value Value • V a lu e is in th e e y e o f th e b e h o ld e r . e .g ., a r t — van Gogh’s paintings were worthless in his lifetime • T h in g s a r e w o r th , w h a t p e o p le s a y th e y a r e w o r th . Gold Gold • T o E u r o p e a n s , m o n e y w a s p h y s ic a l s tu f f . — a b s tr a c t m o n e y is v e r y r e c e n t • R o m a n s h a d to h a v e a c tu a l m o n e y to p a y . • G o ld s ta n d a r d r u n s to th e m id - 1 9 0 0 ’ s • T o E u r o p e a n s , g o ld w a s d is tille d w e a lth . — it w a s r e la tiv e ly r a r e — d o es n o t co rro d e Gold Gold • G o ld w a s s im p ly p r e tty m e ta l to M e s o - A m e r ic a n s – because it was relatively plentiful – not very useful for tool making • Gold was largely unknown north of Mexico. • K n iv e s , a x e s , a n d k e ttle s a r e v a lu a b le . – Stone Age technologies • hard to make • easily broken • highly specialized Gold Gold • T o E u r o p e a n s , g o ld w a s d is tille d w e a lth . • T o M e s o - A m e r ic a n s , g o ld w a s s im p ly p r e tty m e ta l. ...
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This note was uploaded on 12/18/2009 for the course LING 155AC taught by Professor Rhodes during the Fall '09 term at University of California, Berkeley.

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