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Unformatted text preview: The Métis General background of Métis history
One of the human effects of the fur trade is the development of a new race of people. They are the descendants of French fur trappers and the Indian women they married. Because of the antagonism of the indigenous communities and the withdrawal of the French governmental interests from Canada, these mixed race people are forced to form separate communities. We know them as the Métis. The French and the English fought a series of wars in the 19th century. All are fought both in Europe and in North America.
N o r t h A m e r ic a : • K in g W illia m ’ s W a r ( 1 6 8 9 - 9 7 ) E u r o p e : W a r o f th e G r a n d A llia n c e It started with a series of Indian raids instigated by the French governor of Canada. No effect in North America in territory, just bad feelings. The French and the English fought a series of wars in the 19th century. All are fought both in Europe and in North America.
N o r t h A m e r ic a : Queen Anne’s War (1702-1713) E u r o p e : W a r o f th e S p a n is h S u c c e s s io n P e a c e is s ig n e d in th e T r e a ty o f U tr e c h t. • The French cede Nova Scotia in the Treaty of Utrecht in 1713. This establishes the HBC claim to Acadia (= Nova Scotia) and Newfoundland. The French and the English fought a series of wars in the 19th century. All are fought both in Europe and in North America.
N o r t h A m e r ic a : K in g G e o r g e ’ s W a r ( 1 7 4 4 - 4 8 ) E u r o p e : W a r o f th e A u s tr ia n S u c c e s s io n P e a c e is s ig n e d in A ix - la - C h a p e lle . B u t n o th in g is s e ttle d , b o u n d a r ie s a r e r e s e t to th e s ta r t o f th e w a r • The British colonists were mad at having to give back what they’d won. The French and the English fought a series of wars in the 19th century. All are fought both in Europe and in North America.
N o r t h A m e r ic a : • T h e G r e a t W a r f o r E m p ir e ( 1 7 5 4 - 1 7 6 3 ) (a.k.a. French and Indian War) E u ro p e: S ev en Y ears W ar P e a c e is s ig n e d in P a r is . T h e F r e n c h m u s t y ie ld a ll o f th e ir C a n a d ia n in te r e s ts . • T h e B r itis h c o lo n is ts a r e ta x e d to p a y f o r th e N o r th A m e r ic a n p a r t o f th e w ar. • T h is is th e ta x a tio n th a t le a d s to th e A m e r ic a n R e v o lu tio n . • The French cede Quebec in the Treaty of Paris in 1763. The battle for Canada rages from 1758-1760, in connection with the Great War for Empire. In the battle for Quebec on the Plains of Abraham below Quebec City in 1759, both the French general, Montcalm, and the victorious English general, Wolfe, were killed. The surviving French commander, Vaudreuil, surrendered to Amherst and the French are forced to relinquish all claim to Canada. The French withdraw. Those who go to the Bay of Fundy are kicked out in 1775 ultimately ending up in what is now Louisiana. They are the ancestors of the Cajuns. The French lose their foothold in Canada in three stages: • They cede Nova Scotia with the Treaty of Utrecht in 1713. • They lose Quebec during the Great War for Empire in 1759. • They sell the Louisiana territory to the US in 1802. • The French sell the Mississippi valley in the Louisiana Purchase. Even though the French leave ofﬁcially, French colonists, including the fur traders don’t. The Francophones associated with the fur trade have nothing to go back to and they have families out on the plains. The North West Company is formed including Francophone fur trappers and voyageurs in 1779. The North West Company is in competion with the HBC until it is taken over by the HBC in 1820. What’s the Indian side of the Métis story? The French trappers marry Indian women (sometimes more than one) as a hedge against hostility and the environment.
S a c a ja w e a , w h o w a s a g u id e to L e w is a n d C la r k , w a s th e s e c o n d w if e o f a F r e n c h f u r tr a p p e r . But they get along with their wives’ families so poorly that they and their wives and children are rejected by the Indians. Thus the Métis community is born. The Métis serve as go-betweens between white and Indian business interests. They become middlemen and buffalo hunters. York boats and Red River carts used for transporting goods down the Red River and into the Mississippi drainage. Red River Cart In 1811 the English begin to settle on the Red River (Winnipeg). Métis opposition is encouraged by the NWC. T h e s t r u g g le f o r M a n it o b a
In 1867 Canada is confederated and in 1870 Rupert’s Land is sold by the HBC to Canada for £300,000. Surveyors come to the Red River valley and conﬂicts with the Métis begin. The French farms are strips with water access. The Canadians want everything organized in 1 mile squares. Louis Riel and his father stand up to the surveyors. T h e s t r u g g le f o r M a n it o b a
There are two rebellions, both led by Louis Riel. The ﬁrst was in 186970. For logistical reasons, the Canadian government was unable to ﬁeld an army to put down the rebellion. The ﬁrst round went to the Métis who set up a government. T h e s t r u g g le f o r M a n it o b a
But the price was to send Riel into exile. The Canadian government mismanaged the land agreements. They tried to allocate land during the summer when everyone was gone buffalo hunting. The second rebellion started in 1885 over those grievences. T h e s t r u g g le f o r M a n it o b a
Believing that Riel could win them what they wanted the Métis called him back. But this time the Canadian government was able to get soldiers there. The Métis were defeated and Riel was hanged. T h e s t r u g g le f o r M a n it o b a
The Métis rebellions encouraged Canada to speed up the organization of Manitoba and provided political will to ﬁnish its transcontinental railroad. ...
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This note was uploaded on 12/18/2009 for the course LING 155AC taught by Professor Rhodes during the Fall '09 term at University of California, Berkeley.
- Fall '09