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Unformatted text preview: The Fur Trade E a r ly p h a s e
The story begins in the Northeast. Informal trade in conjunction with ﬁshing and whaling from early 1500’s. Basques are ﬁshing for cod off the Grand Banks by 1502. Indian groups in the St. Lawrence drainage and in the eastern Great Lakes area are the ﬁrst to supply furs. E a r ly p h a s e
Indian groups in the St. Lawrence drainage and in the eastern Great Lakes area are mainly Iroqouians. • Iroquois Confederacy • Groups allied to Hurons E a r ly F u r T r a d e A r e a I r o q u o ia n s The early European traders were French and Dutch who dealt primarily with the Iroquois Confederacy. The Iroquois Confederacy arose in the 1400’s. There was extensive and devasating warfare among various Iroquois speaking peoples. A Mohawk by the name of Deganawida developed a plan to put an end to the warfare. He enlisted the aid of an eloquent Onandaga by the name of Hiawatha. The plan required that all the chiefs participate in a Grand Council. The confederacy was formed out of ﬁve nations. • Mohawk • Oneida • Seneca • Onondaga • Cayuga In 1722 the Tuscarora came up from Virginia and joined. So now the Confederacy is called Six Nations. It still functions today. I r o q u o is C o n f e d e r a c y The fur trade was driven by the fashion industry. Felt hats were fashionable from 1550-1850. Beaver felt was the most desirable because of its durability. By the late 1500’s, beaver were extinct in Europe. But they were plentiful in the lakerich areas of North America where the glaciers had been. These areas correspond to the zone we call the subarctic The fur trade exported 10,000-12,000 beaver pelts per year in the ﬁrst 50 years (ca. 1600-1650). Even in early times, beaver were depleted from the more southerly river drainages, forcing trappers ever deeper. By the mid-1600’s the Iroquois Confederacy was economically dependent on European trade goods. The fur trade exported 10,000-12,000 beaver pelts per year in the ﬁrst 50 years (ca. 1600-1650). Even in early times, beaver were depleted from the more southerly river drainages, forcing trappers ever deeper. By the mid-1600’s the Iroquois Confederacy was economically dependent on European trade goods. Iroquois Confederacy territory (upstate New York) was trapped out by the mid-1600’s. This led to a war against the Hurons that raged through southern Ontario and Michigan from 1650-1700. By 1700 the Iroquois are no longer in the fur trapping business. By 1700 the Iroquois are no longer in the fur trapping business. The fur trade passes to the north and to the west involving mostly Cree and Ojibwe peoples, with French and English competing for furs. Around 1700 the Iroquois stop ﬁghting the French and ﬁnd an economic niche as allies of the French against the English. The French are unable to attract sufﬁcient settlement to make their chartered business, the Company of a Hundred Associates, succeed and the French crown takes over New France 1660. E a r ly p h a s e
The story passes to the Subarctic. The main fur trade tribes are the Cree to the north, And the Ojibwe around Sault Ste. Marie ...
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This note was uploaded on 12/18/2009 for the course LING 155AC taught by Professor Rhodes during the Fall '09 term at University of California, Berkeley.
- Fall '09