22_Post_Conquest_Mexico - Mexico Mexico P o s t C o n q u e...

Info iconThis preview shows page 1. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

Unformatted text preview: Mexico Mexico P o s t C o n q u e s t M e x ic o Program of Hispanification a. To a Spaniard, civilization is in the city. • The most important people live closest to the city center—the plaza (in Mexico called the zocalo). • The wealth is in the countryside. — A g r ic u ltu r e — M in e r a ls • Land comes by grants from the Spanish crown. • Labor comes from indigenous peoples via encomiendas. P o s t C o n q u e s t M e x ic o Program of Hispanification b. Being Catholic is a crucial part of being Spanish. 1. Mission work by various orders: D o m in ic a n s F r a n c is c a n s A u g u s tin ia n s J e s u its 2. Education was in the hands of the Church 3. Christianization was part of the encomienda. 4. Conversion was part of subsequent conquest— the requirimiento. P o s t C o n q u e s t M e x ic o b. Being Catholic is a crucial part of being Spanish. 2. The Virgin of Guadalupe (1531) legitimates indigenous Catholicism. A n e w in d ig e n o u s c o n v e r t, J u a n D ie g o , h a d a n a p p a r itio n o f th e V ir g in M a r y , o n th e h ill o f T e p e y a c w h e r e a n A z te c g o d d e s s w a s v e n e r a te d . M a r y a p p e a r e d a s a d a r k - s k in n e d w o m a n , a n d c o m m a n d e d h im to h a v e a c h u r c h b u ilt o n th a t s p o t. P o s t C o n q u e s t M e x ic o The Virgin of Guadalupe W h e n J u a n D ie g o w e n t to s e e th e b is h o p , h e w a s r e b u f f e d b e c a u s e h e w a s a n I n d ia n . T h e V ir g in a p p e a r e d to h im a s e c o n d tim e a n d c a u s e s r o s e s to b lo o m w h e r e th e y a r e o u t o f s e a s o n , w h i c h h e g a t h e r s i n t o h i s t i l m a. S u c h b e a u tif u l r o s e s c o n v in c e th e g u a r d s to ta k e h im to th e b is h o p . I n th e p r e s e n c e o f th e b is h o p , th e r o s e s f a ll to th e g r o u n d a n d th e lik e n e s s o f th e V ir g in appears on the tilma. T h e s h r in e s till d r a w s th o u s a n d s o f p ilg r im s . P o s t C o n q u e s t M e x ic o The Virgin of Guadalupe W ith th is e v e n t, r e a l o r n o t, C h r is tia n ity b e c o m e s tr u ly in d ig e n o u s in M e x ic o . C h r is tia n ity is n o t ju s t a “ w h ite m a n ’ s r e lig io n ” in M e x ic o . This image of the Virgin of Guadalupe becomes a symbol of Mexico. P o s t C o n q u e s t M e x ic o Program of Hispanification c. Tension exists between European Spaniards (peninsulares, a.k.a. gachupines) and Mexican-born Spaniards (criollos). This distinction was considered racial in a society which was very race conscious. Pervasiveness of what we would call mixed race peoples. There were more than a dozen officially recognized races, called castas, and many more unofficial distinctions. LAS CASTAS LAS Español con India Mestizo Mestizo con Española Castizo Castizo con Española Español Español con Mora Mulato Mulato con Española Morisco Morisco con Española Chino Chino con India Salta Atras Salta Altras con Mulata Lobo Lobo con China Gibaro Gibaro con Mulata Albarazado Albarazado con Negra Cambujo Cambujo con India Sambaigo Sambaigo con Loba Calpamulato Calpamulato con Cambuja Tente en el Aire Tente en el Aire con Mulata Noteentiendo No Teentiendo con India Tornaatras P o s t C o n q u e s t M e x ic o To this day, Mexicans are very conscious of this history. • Crucially, in the colonial period the distinction between peninsulares (European Spaniards, a.k.a. gachupines) and criollos (Mexican-born people of pure Spanish descent) was considered racial. • Criollos were second class citizens in much the way African Americans were in the pre-civil rights era South, or Chinese Americans were in California in the early 1900’s. • For this reason many pregnant peninsular women were sent back to Spain to have their children. P o s t C o n q u e s t M e x ic o Encomiendas (1524-1555) • grants of rights to use Indians as laborers. a. Grants of land separate from encomiendas. b. Encomenderos were required to live in cities. — A majordomo manages the encomendero’s holdings. — Local “straw bosses” oversee the actual work. • Because Indians in an encomienda are taxed, migrant labor forces are hired for temporary help. ...
View Full Document

Ask a homework question - tutors are online