Flutes+of+Fire+_Hinton+1994_+pp20-27

Flutes+of+Fire+_Hinton+1994_+pp20-27 - Hultdern tutu...

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Unformatted text preview: Hultdern tutu mellu-m- halt“: m- qsn Iffl cal-mu halide-qua WIT rm- IIITI' in new hltdtdl rip-n 11's! Iowa-Elm NI Inc-1‘ HITII' writ-1! r'ec'qaw i1! rmltdum eds-us ear-deem- sum diflhhdurt tum- callus lewa-e‘al rml m- wmwmnummmmmm mineral p’ihmutulundlmhlyablmmt hurl the? malfiultmlem-r'almdfl lanqu MMMfl-mMMm'hpmmmflnm-MF tulle-rm flit J'l'tlIli“ mwmwwmmwmmmwswmunm Mun—tummuutm.fihtu[mmawuin]m hdeIfimpflulThmspufi-Immhmm mmmwmm'nIh-m-rmmwrmmu MMMMWWIWWMEHMMw-dfl WMHflmeOflwpufiIhuMwhfim 311mm mfiuflrwndwhfi. —l-|Irrnlnjlmu in Imminent Redraw Tm. pp. 1-1-43 " SHAppet-Idix Burgeneral Living California Indian Languages by Leanne Hinton and Tuianda Muntlln The enntinued existence at about Pitt}.r Native Calitemim languages,‘ with their alternatel}.r rollicking and. beautiful linguistic creativity as characterized in the telluwing essays. is an indication hi the great Lultural strength uECalifornia Indian cnmrnILu'iities. Their survival is especially amazing when we realize that it is THJ'W urn-er l‘h'u centuries the timely disruptive establishment oi the Spanish missims. and nearly a. |::p.=_n||,|.|."rt.r and a half since the field Rush and its tragic attenrlath. Hut despite their endurance. the Califnrnia languages are at the brink of EII‘lJ'lCl'l-t'm. The titty living languages are what remain of an:de a hundred apnken here in Him. And it appears that there is not a sr'rtgl'e {alifnrnia Indian language that is being learned by children as the primary.r language uf the huusehelcl. Even these who knew ll'lt;I languages fitrely use them: they may have nn one In talk In, and the habits of native language use may wither. In a recent interview: Chem-:11va elder Gertrude LL'l'i-‘flfi- tallest abeut the Last time she made full meet her native tongue, ten years befan at her bruther's funeral. "'I surprised myself," she said. "The wucrdseame uut like a string elbeads." {Lilla Artfl'l'rs Times article by Paul Feidma n. I993]. With no new mrfit Califnrriia languages are spoken rims' nnl].r h}: the elders. Iit"il'hen the elders die. the languages will liker vanish firm the face ul the earth. Still. penple have a bertac'u'lus halt}- tetheirlanguregrs. Mliwgl'l from is learning the Califnrnia languages naljtv'elyarly metre, there are marl}- yuung pertple around theslate whu are trying It: learn them as sweet languages. IFtl'n-ae mmmunity and individ ual Eifnrls moaned. fl'ueCalifmnia lan- guages may be around much lenger Hun predicted. Tu paraplmiae Matt'- Twain—repute at their death might be [we hnpel] greatly exaggerated. ‘ Esaetly have num- llwrean" depict-Idem whet'tu-r we define mm earietifl as separate languan eras dialectsufa single language. ‘I 21 '1 FLUTEI flF FIRE [twouldaeemnmblehahymh'ifiannmadasexacflymmany weal-relathereareefeaehCaliidtnia magnbutthlsismtat ailaneasy thing to do. For mutingwhatdo wen'utanby "speaker"? TakeYnI-okrfnr mmplemllnguagtspolnnhafl'ermflmutmstpaflofCahimrda ‘t'umlt basal-ll}; about fifteen fluem speakers. but there aremany "semirspealters" whol'tave alargevneahularyin'furnkarui may bed-ale mearryona simple mtversatimfiI'hereareahnsnmewhnspe-ali Yumkasastuauflanguage— pecnpiewhnhamed delartguageasheemgersmymmgadidhflawe mtmnfid—LrigtnF-IearmasspeakmoranAndesmifdurewm no fluent waiters at all. the language would not be runme "deaf—fur Hmarenunyndwodm'tspeakd‘elangmgeofduairhmflagabutdohmw sen-a phrasesand wards; sen-ehaveapamiveknmeledgepfthelamtuage H'atcmrldhuawaltenedimoacliueusagpwifltsomeworlt. A second problem is that rruzust surveys are by necessity based an casual Lithium-giver: by linguist member's. Sud": estimates are rarely accurate. as the people framed in rnalse them usually peinro‘ut. A good case in point is a shorty told by linguist Mariaqu Mili‘llm abeut her week with Cayuga people in Dntarie. Canada. Ehe keptaskingperrple inthecorrununityhowmany therewere Ihat still spake the language. and people generally estimated that there were ai'onndfluflyspeakersleft_HnweveI.whmstura5kedwhn tl‘tespeaiters were. the names were often different. Finally. a Cayuga man she told about this discrepancy decided to do a houseln—hnuse survey on his men. He funnd that fl'utre were 31a Cayuga speakers! A sun'ey tispeakersnf Native Anal-lean languages was madein the 1mm Wallaeeflmfie. butthe sihaafim ofendangered language." changes veryrupidlgand Weeds-bunched ate-lephpnesurvey in Julyand August. 1993 hadetennine asdoselyaspossiblehowmany fluentspealters dearearenarirforCal'iimia languages.th speketaseventyuihalaffireranatieesd'nlarsand linguists hagetdledcfifitpomiale gumfioread't Another aourot: of informatith a highly qutnfiunable one. is the Will! U5. census In 199.] these language questions were included in the mammary: Ibuthisprramapealalawoflusflwfinglfltaimnlyfi HM What islhislangiuge? {Eurexairtpht China. Italian. Spanish. Vietnam] ‘12.:- uan; cum Meal-Illa“!!! This warding issitghtiy Wrens; lereur own may. for twp app-using reasca'Ls. Firstr since speakers at endangered languages nEten dn Iurtspealc their language athurne. tin-y might notrt-puri it. Strand. lhtr qtut'lm‘tdLK-B matasltaboutflueney—apersenwluaknew onlyafewwerdsaniphrases but tried in use them around ti'I-ehnuse. might repeat using amther lan- thage.The first prnlalern rnuld lead to order-repelling the numberof speakers ufa language. and the sneer-d maid lead It: wet-repeating. Armther diffime is the fact that the questirutsabeut languagewere only on the “lung fonn” offl'tecenaua survey. wl'u'ch was given out toan aim-rage alone in seventamsel'ualds ttheaet-iatl pereentageefhousehnlds surveyed with the lung term differs from plaeete plaaei Thus. [ereaeh area. the number nl reap-rinses was multiplied seven nr startle-timer :otuitant. Thissortof procedure can give reasonable Hills for large populations; but if, for example. there is Only em speak-var of a given Califnrnia language, lite nensus wnu'lel state that fl'tere areruane, at m dtperui'mg on wl'wil'us'ornut that partimlar Mist-hold gotthe lung furrn. its the Census Bureau pointed out to us. there are varirms ether-scam erf erroras well: frarexample. perrple Ella]! wr'ilitdimn language “BITE that the nnsus labth ran't reengaiae. and may put :in the wrung eamgerles. “turns out that the census reports rmsiderably mm: speakelsnf California languages than our telephnne survey It would be nwdetfitl it: think that this isdut- It: theCayuga syndrome—that titre are mere speakers amund ihi-t‘l-fl casual estimatehy inl'nrmed penpie is liker tn diselnse. But it isth more Eta! tJ'Ie-disaepaneiesaredue It: sam- plingnnd slafisi'ifil enters l:ry flwCeruius Bun-tau... mph-d with flu: nortpptimal [its out purposes}wptdingrrl' the qwstirm. With the infurmatiim from ween-amid a tableufall Native Californian languages which have at least one living speaker. and some of thee with net living ape-alters. Ttarextinet languages tl'iat wesfuw here havebeen included Ern'nne of several masts-Is: either ti'ielast speakers died just retently. er the language has same fatneand is flurrfdredfgenerai interest isueh as ‘fahi. Ii'Ie ‘t'anan language spoken by lshil.ocr most impor- Ianliy. fl'utdesrendenlsoffl'tespealters are studying fl'ie languageand pussbe attempting tel revive it. [t is important tn reiterate that all of these numbers iernlved same guesswork and nonronn be lalwnasunquesfioruble. Even thepeople nuts: ‘31. FLUTE! DFFIII closely involved with anlangtiagetin-a}I mtlomvilaoerhin persmspeairs it flu-nflyorrkit. Theremaywell bepeoplewhoknow'd'telanguage huthave new: been heard tel-speak it by Ii'teiraasociams. Ins-um: lama-when: nunbersntalfihe Haefarawaytrom eachoti'ter. peoplemay not knot-r for sun.- il'a speaker is afiilaliw. PEOFIh! also hatrediiferent ideasof what matures "fluency." or even what language is sprka ForL'annple. Moch and Klamath paraplearetm the same reservatim, and there is disagreemtt ammfi'wpeople we spoketoaa to wturthersome'indh'idu- alsmuntsed as hutndrx'nr Klamath weakens. {The two languages are clearly related. so it hardly :lTli‘li'lrIE; emcept that wecount Motion: asaCaJifomia ianguageand Klamathasa language oFfl'egonli Becausetltfl'mvarhms sources-of uncertaintyr Ihatare built intofl'listask, weitfludethreestflsotesfimatesinthetahleinthischapter: Conservative Intimate: People's last Eljmateotf the number affluent glaciers. Whenntor'ethanonenurnherisgiem, it rneenseither that irltarrnad perpledifiEIind'Ieirts-fimatesmlhatmpersmguesses the l‘lllll'lbt't' tails benveen thesetwo extremal. Foresmple. in CahuillrL "Fill" isamnbirtafirmofesfimates hytwo people. wotwhom estimated 'Tor more." and the other "attend Ill.” liberal estimate: This is an estimate that may include less fluent individuals—semispeakers and mud-language speakers. attune- tiveiy, it mag.r include situations where the language spoken is a matter at il'tlrrpleht'mcn. 19!} oer-ut- figuret'i'hae numbers are taken from Fun-i3 CFH-LJllJfi. Tahle1{"Deta.ilr.dlanguagespukm athumearudahility mspeakErrglist-Ihx pernru'u Eyeamand cn'er. 199‘] United States? and Table lflI{”Detailed languagegukfitattnmandahflitytnapmhfingfiflthnpnmfiym andover‘. lmCaliEontiaLBureauottheCensuaSomefinEdusfigmeis d:I'ttntatit:al1]rI dlflierent tmrn the best estimates otknowkdgeahie people, for fl'IereamnsdHriaed abrwe. ItemrsfigmethaiflurrdadiflmhtsM-eimtarmfiunttefigme tutti-IeUt-tited Statesasa Willie—In that casemelistbcdh figura'ihiscan sometims be lhat'li'uareareNaliveCaJitorniaJ-Ia living outaideotCaliiicmia whoreportthemaeltres asspeakosofthese languages» Hon-m. mtimesd'hediitemesseem improbable and ma}r hede tostrrneen'oror ditterenoeininterprelaticm. ‘ 21 fl Limit-Hamil India Lam Note that we say nothing in this table about populatim star: for example. there are no fluent Chumash speakers, but there are ofcoulse man}- Chumosh people. The number oi people on the tribal rolls always exceeds the numberch‘ speakers by far. There are many Native Amer-inn languages spoken inCaJii'omia besides Native Californian languages. The census reports more speakers of Navajo in California than aLl Native Californian languages entertained! Here is a list. from the lfi‘ill'l census, of the other Native American lan- guages spoken in California by people who have migrated from other parts ol‘ the country: aleut all, "American Indian" 1W5, Apache 29?, Arapaho 34. Arikara 2‘lJ. Blackfoot 41. Chasta Costa 61. Cherokee 4H. Cheyenne d3. Chiricahua 2]. Choctaw 133. Comanche El. Cree till; Crow Ii], Dakota 14?, Eskimo 1119, For it], French Cree F, Han 16, Hidatsa If, Hopi as; lnupik Iii. Iroquois it, licarilla lo. Kansa 5.. Keres 139.. Kickapoo E, Kiowa 5'6, Menomini 55. Mitt-nae lit, Mohawk 12, Muskogee 159, Natale 1334, Ne: Peter: 5. Ojibwa 94. "Other hfl'tapascan-Eyalt” ID. Ottawa 2, Picuris 3. P'Lrna 135, Potawatmni 19. Puget Sound Salish 5. Sahaptian 25. Salish Z. Ten-a 11.1r Tiwa 35. Tlingit 2. Tots-a all. Lite 28. Yat'apai 5, luni SIM. Europa is spoken ah'mst entiwa in Anemia and “militth but we incl-Jae iI here because the tribe was originally en holh sides of the Colondo Riven and so partlyr in California. (the tribe has about fill members in Arizona; our contact says about 69% speak or understand the language. with a third of dlose'being fluent speakersj Children have passive knowledge olfocopa and can use some words and phrases; and a few ma}r be learning fluently. but must fluent speakers are nuddle-aged or older. There are aLan about FmCmnpas in Mexico- who are not affiliated with the tribeon this sideothtn: Plunder. Little is known about their linguistic status. although we are sure there an: many speakers. The number of speakers of California language-a might seem depress- hurls-10w, and it is sad to note that the spoikers at these languages are almost all elders—a5 was noted at the begiJ'miJ'tg of die chapter. not a single CaLiEornia language is being learned by children as the primai-y language of the l'lfllJSEthd. But Natix'eCalifcu'nians are waging a battle to keep their languages alike. In the table. we have included short notes about language pnesm‘s'ation and restoration activities taking plan: " 25 1 FLUTE flF FIIE within lite Calitnmia Indian mnmunilies.’ We also note when we know that tradttiunal singing. an activity tineer related lai- language usage. is occurring. Man}.- singers have begun ta learn their languages as adulta befiLfieufflIeir commitment In singing. We ineluaine this euluizm as evidentl- that Calilurnia in in the midst ufa Feat Language revival. indeed a gerrem cultural renaissance. If these "mmunity—baaed language activities" efforts sauteeed, the California languagfi may be areund mu‘h Irmger than the low numbers Bl'alml'l here indicate. Llur deepest thanks for tJ'Ieir willingness to share their biota-ledge with us in this surrey.r gr: tDClI'uilf Hl'lr'itl'E. Craig Bates. Margaret Bitty. Lowell Bean. David Belardea.Gorden Bettlfl. Brian Bibby. William Bright. Farris Burl-er. Catherine Callaghan. Linda Charles. MilfiIeLle Eileen, Gilbert Carder-u. Betty Carnelius. Alan Daugherty. Erie Elliult. Kay anler. Hm Frauen. Geoffrey Gamble. Lillian Garela. Ieannine Glmdar. Victur Cnilla. Emile-ride. Marlene Green-way. Bill jae'etiaen, Albert lame-.9. Louie-r lefirederWarden. Darrell Jehreten. Michael Katee. Paul lahlarr. Cindy Lanaeb‘ullJulian Lang. Margaret Langden. Mel Lavatn. Michael Lirrain. Frank Label. Sue Label. Maria Maearm. Martha hulae-ri. Malealm Marylin. Helen MeCarth. Emufine Hello-wan. Wick Miller. Marianne MithII'I. Pan'iela hllunm. Angle Dab-calm, Herbert “Seawall. Pauline L'twl, Lillian Farra. Victoria Patterson. lean Pen-y. Staph-n DHL'SEnberry. 5min: Ran-firm Haney Riel-rarelm David. Rubin-tun, Neel RLieler Alice Shepherd, Flare-nee Shipek. William El'IiPIEf. Silver. Emie Siva. Georges-lantern". TE'ETf and Sarah Supahan, julie Tex. Ber-nine Turret. Kathy Turner. Norma TLu'ner, Agnes Vera. Matt 'il'era. Run and Carul Wmnufl'l. Ken Whiatler and Daqu Wllsnn. Wedn ml Ira-ILIdr' rruniinradwnrieahy linguiahnn dine Wmflut mild imman- [remnant-LI:- table-a hundndfuhd' Mm mama“: publication-m line Warren-ladin availableelarwhne.flutbad1pdalidardm.lnd lineal-ll: Held manplartnea Mme-tubule lnremmuniry trump mum and preaen'alimef‘furh 1-155. anflhnllw Speakers at Calilarnia lnrllan Languages mummaam qfhhr nmmdfimtmfrhwhfly tnaddflhumrtuuamhrt.mafaflaihhmm fluent smiles. thrrr m maturity at tummy aria-Ir language in Calfirnr'a ail-Ir Em art-med. A near-e detailed W31 ...
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Flutes+of+Fire+_Hinton+1994_+pp20-27 - Hultdern tutu...

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