33_culture_areas_upload-1-1-1-1-1-1

33_culture_areas_upload-1-1-1-1-1-1 - CULTURAL DIVERSITY...

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Unformatted text preview: CULTURAL DIVERSITY CULTURAL in the WESTERN HEMISPHERE A t th e tim e o f c o n ta c t N o r th A m e r ic a c o n ta in e d : • M o r e th a n 1 0 0 0 p o litic a l g r o u p s • M o r e th a n 7 0 0 la n g u a g e s • in m o r e th a n 5 0 la n g u a g e f a m ilie s • s p r e a d a c r o s s 1 2 c u ltu r e a r e a s 50 Language Families B y c o n tr a s t a t th a t tim e E u r o p e c o n ta in e d : • F e w e r th a n 5 0 0 p o litic a l g r o u p s • F e w e r th a n 1 0 0 la n g u a g e s • in 1 0 la n g u a g e f a m ilie s • s p r e a d a c r o s s a s in g le c u ltu r e a r e a Why the difference? Why were European groups so big and similar? Why were Indigenous American groups so small and different? Food Food How did they get calories? Europeans • Agriculture/animal husbandry. Native Americans • Hunting/foraging/(areal) agriculture. No domesticated food animals! Hunting and Foraging Natural limits on the geographical density of calories. Therefore • Hunter-gatherer groups are (semi-)nomadic. Partial exception • Seas and lakes may have lots of “cheap” calories. Hunting and Foraging Natural limits on the geographical density of calories. Therefore • Hunter-gatherer groups are small (mostly). Need to move limits material wealth. Small group size limits division of labor. Hunting and Foraging Indigenous culture was deeply affected by the environment. Therefore • Ecological zones correlate with culture areas. Culture is limited by language. Therefore • Grouping by language families helps delimit culture types. The The CULTURE AREAS Subsistence patterns • Food source Fish Game Wild plants Agriculture Arctic • Food source Sea mammals Arctic • Eskimo-Aleut Yupik Inuit Aleut Subarctic • Food source Large game Small game Fish Wild plants Subarctic • Algonquian Cree Montagnais Ojibwe • Athabaskan Dogrib Chipewayan Slavey Koyukon M oose Major source of food in the northern sector of North America. Caribou Major source of food in the northern sector of North America Great Plains Great • Food Sources Large game Small game Wild plants Some corn, beans agriculture Great Plains Great • Siouan Lakhota Iowa • Algonquian Cheyenne Arapaho • Caddoan Pawnee Caddo • also some isolates Buffalo (Bison) Major source of food in most of North America Elk Major source of food in the southern and western sectors of North America Food values of large game animal cal/100gm usable meat/ animal in kg. cal/animal person-days/ animal animals/year to feed a tribe of 10.000 d eer c a r ib o u e lk m oose b is o n 157 127 111 104 143 2 2 .7 4 5 .4 9 9 .8 2 7 2 .2 2 4 9 .5 3 5 ,6 0 7 5 7 ,6 0 6 1 1 0 ,7 6 7 2 8 3 ,0 4 2 3 5 6 ,7 5 0 1 7 .0 2 7 .4 5 2 .7 1 3 4 .8 1 6 9 .9 2 1 5 ,4 1 4 1 3 3 ,1 5 0 6 9 ,2 4 7 2 7 ,0 9 9 2 1 ,5 0 0 C a l o r i e v a l u e s f r o m w w w .e x o ti c m e a ts .c o m M e a t/ a n im a l c o n s e n s u s v a lu e s f r o m m u ltip le s o u r c e s Northeast • Food sources Large game Small game Fish Wild plants Corn, beans, squash agriculture Northeast • Algonquian Ojibwe/Chippewa Delaware Massachusett • Iroquoian Mohawk Seneca • also Souian Winnebago Southeast • Food source Agriculture Small game Fish Southeast • Iroquoian Cherokee • Muskogean Choctaw-Chickasaw Muskogee Alabama-Koasati • Siouan Tupelo • also some isolates Plateau • Food source Fish Wild plants Plateau • Salishan Coeur d’Alene • Penutian Nez Perce • also an isolate Kootenay Great Basin • Food source Wild plants Small game Great Basin • Uto-Aztecan (all Numic branch) Ute Paiute Shoshone Southwest • Food source Corn Wild plants Small game Southwest • Athabaskan Apache Navajo • Uto-Aztecan Hopi Yaqui • also Tanoan Tewa • also Hokan Havasupai • Food source Northwest Coast Fish Wild plants • Sedentary foragers Amassed wealth Hierarchical society Slaves Potlatches Northwest Coast • Penutian Chinook • Salishan Halkomelem • also Wakashan Makah • also some isolates California • Food source Wild plants Small game Fish California • Penutian Yokuts Miwok • Hokan Pomo Yahi/Yana • Uto-Aztecan Luiseño • also Athabaskan Hupa • Food source MesoAmerica Corn, bean agriculture (w/irrigation) Small game • Large urbanized populations • Hierarchical societies • City states/military empires MesoAmerica • Uto-Aztecan Nahuatl (Aztec) • Otomanguean Mixtec Zapotec • Mixe-Zoquean • Mayan Quiché Tzeltal-Tzotzil Caribbean • Food source Corn, bean agriculture Fish Caribbean • Mayan • Carib (also S.A.) (a • Arawak (mostly S. A.) • also some isolates ...
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This note was uploaded on 12/18/2009 for the course LING 155AC taught by Professor Rhodes during the Fall '09 term at University of California, Berkeley.

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