Motivation and Emotion

Motivation and Emotion - 10/28/2009 Motivation &...

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10/28/2009 1 Motivation & Emotion Prof. South 10/29/09 Motivation 1. What motivates behavior? 2. Reward mechanisms in the brain 3. Hunger 4. Sex 5. Sleep Motivation the set of behaviors that initiate, maintain, and direct behavior, usually toward a goal 1. What motivates behavior? Need: state of biological or social deficiency Arousal: physiological activation Drive: psychological state that motivates an organism to satisfy its needs Yerkes-Dodson Law
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10/28/2009 2 Types of Drives Psychological states that arise in response to internal physiological needs Regulatory Drives Homeostasis: Process through which body maintains a steady state Example: Important to maintain a constant internal temperature Reducing drive -> Restore homeostasis Regulatory drives Non-regulatory drives Safety drives Reproductive drives Social drives Educational drives Incentive Motivation External factors in the environment that exert “pulling” effects on our actions Example: Good grades motivate you to study Interact with internal factors An internal drive, such as hunger, can increase motivating effect of an incentive, such as a food reward Achievement Motivation Internal drive or need for achievement, possessed by all individuals to varying degrees Reflected by how much a person values Reflected by how much a person values, needs individual achievement Affected by past experience Example: Effect of praise on children Some cultures value individual achievement more than others Intrinsic Motivation Goal-directed behavior that seems to be entirely self-motivated Actions that are rewarding for their own sake Can actually be reduced by external rewards Example: Rewarding children for drawing makes drawing less intrinsically rewarding 2. Reward Mechanisms of the Brain Drug Addiction
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10/28/2009 3 Central state theory of drives 3. Hunger Appetite control center Arcuate nucleus Internal signals that regulate appetite Sensory signals in the environment Hunger: Internal Factors Brain monitors signals from the body
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Motivation and Emotion - 10/28/2009 Motivation &...

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