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Learning - Learning PSY 120 Prof South 1 Habituation and...

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10/1/2009 1 Learning Ivan Pavlov PSY 120 Prof. South 1. Habituation and sensitization 2. Classical Conditioning Essentials 3. Instrumental Conditioning 4. Radical Behaviorism 5. Learning without reinforcement 6. Fear conditioning Never Have I Ever... Investigators at the University of Rochester are looking for college-aged individuals (ages 18 to 35) to participate in a research study. You will be asked to complete a brief online survey regarding different risky behaviors in which you may have engaged. To complete the survey, please go to the following website: http://www.courses.rochester.edu/surveys/liebman/neverever/ At the conclusion of the survey, you may choose to be entered into a raffle for an iPod Touch! For more information about this survey please feel free to contact the principal investigator, Shayne Ragbeer, a graduate student in the Department of Clinical and Social Sciences in Psychology at the University of Rochester, at [email protected] What’s It For? Learning From Experience • Learning: relatively enduring change in behavior, resulting from experience – Noticing and Ignoring – Learning What Events Signal – Learning About the Consequences of Our Behavior – Learning from Others
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10/1/2009 2 Habituation and Sensitization Orienting response: Turning toward a new event After repeated exposure to an event: H bit ti R d d di t th t – Habituation: Reduced responding to the event – Sensitization: Increased responding to the event Classical Conditioning Overview Technique developed to study how simple associations form These associations allow us to prepare ourselves for future events – Example: Association between flash of lightning and noise of thunder Pavlov’s Discovery Pavlov (1849-1936): Russian physiologist Noticed that salivation often began before food placed in their mouths – Pavlov observed that some stimuli produce automatic responses, and other stimuli can automatic responses, and other stimuli can start to produce those responses too through a process of learning
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10/1/2009 3 Pavlov’s Experiment Meat powder on tongue Give Stimulus Measure Meat powder on tongue Ring Bell Measure Give Stimulus Control Condition Experimental Condition Meat powder on tongue Meat powder on tongue Meat powder on tongue Meat powder on tongue Meat powder on tongue Meat powder on tongue Terminology Unconditioned stimulus (US): A stimulus that automatically leads to a response prior to any training – Example: Food Unconditioned response (UR): The response that is produced automatically, prior to training, on presentation of US – Example: Salivation Conditioned stimulus (CS): Neutral stimulus that is paired with the US during classical conditioning – Example: Feeder’s footsteps/ Bell Conditioned response (CR): The learned response produced by the conditioned stimulus – Example: Dog salivates (CR) when hearing the feeder’s footsteps (CS) Classical Conditioning (cont’d) Before conditioning: Food (US) Salivation (UR) Bell (CS) No salivation (no response/ irrelevant response)
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