0218 & 0223 - Richards & Waterbury Chapter 4 The...

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Chapter 4 – “The Impact of Demographic Change” Summary : Richards & Waterbury state that population growth rates have fallen in the past two decades, in the Middle East but the populations “will continue to expand, both because fertility remains well above replacement levels in many countries and because past population growth ensures that there are many women who will soon enter their childbearing years” (71). They argue that population growth is a result of social and economic conditions and is problematic because it strains resources and development (not adequate education or employment opportunities). In terms of fertility rates in relation to economics, the sooner children can perform labor, the sooner they add to their family’s income (76). Furthermore, having many children ensures that enough grow up who will be able to care for their elderly parents (76). Finally, if women are illiterate and unemployed then the time spent caring for the child is not a lost opportunity to earn money. Richards & Waterbury also say that culture (social norms define a woman’s place in society) and state policy (health and education programs; birth control) can both affect fertility rates. Demographic change negatively affects economic development because with an increase in population there is less money to spend on each pupil’s education and an increase in the number of people looking for jobs. Furthermore, specific minority groups can grow in size, creating tension within certain countries, such as Lebanon and Israel. Lastly, an increased population creates a large group of working age people who are educated, and ambitious but cannot find jobs that are suitable to their needs/desires (96). Chapter 5 – Human Capital Summary : Middle Eastern countries often promise their citizens health, education and jobs. Richards and Waterbury explain health conditions based on life expectancy at birth and infant
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This note was uploaded on 12/17/2009 for the course GOVT 3313 taught by Professor Patel,david during the Spring '08 term at Cornell University (Engineering School).

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0218 & 0223 - Richards & Waterbury Chapter 4 The...

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