Biology Final Exam Study Guide

Biology Final Exam Study Guide - 1 Biology Final Exam Study...

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1 Biology Final Exam Study Guide 1. What are the 3 types of Neurons in your body and what do they do? Sensory neurons: carry impulses to the interneurons of the brain Interneurons of the brain: interpret impulses Motor neurons: carry impulses to the muscles 2. What is a Nerve impulse? Stimulation of a neuron, opens channels so that sodium goes in, depolarizing the membrane The adjacent section of membrane allows sodium to go in, depolarizing it This wave of depolarization continues at a rapid rate down the neuron, resulting in a nerve impulse traveling to the brain in milliseconds 3. What is a Neuron at rest? Outside of neuron is positively charged due to positive sodium ions Inside of neuron is negatively charged due to negative ions 4. What is a Sodium Pump? Operates when neuron is at rest of not transmitting nerve impulse Pump is a membrane protein The protein actively transports sodium out of the axon to re-establish polarity of membrane 5. What are synapses? Gaps or junctions between neurons 6. How many known Neurotransmitters are there? Name 3. 50 known: Acetylcholine, Dopamine, Serotonin 7. How are neurotransmitters removed out of synapse? After neurotransmitter stimulates the postsynaptic membrane, it is removed by an enzyme or transported out of synapse 8. What are the different problems/money issues from drug addiction in the U.S.? Name 5. Cigs contribute to more deaths than cancer and heart disease Alcohol is leading cause of violence Needles are spreading aids Addiction to drugs account for a third of all hospital admissions Costing the USA 240 billion annually 9. What is the master molecule of addiction? Dopamine 10. Why do we need a neurotransmitter like dopamine? Human behavior is controlled by natural chemical reward systems in the body (or reward pathway = a system involving neurotransmitters that promote survival or reproduction) When a human being performs an action that satisfies a need or fulfills a desire, the neurotransmitter dopamine is released into the nucleus accumbens and produces pleasure This serves a signal that the action promotes signal or reproduction 11. What is dopamine’s normal action? After being released into the synapse, dopamine binds to receptors on the next neuron The dopamine is either quickly reabsorbed or broken down by the enzyme monoamine oxidase 12. How does addictive drugs affect dopamine levels?
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2 Addictive drugs cause the flooding of the synapses of the nucleus accumbens 13. What do police rank as the number one drug problem in the U.S. and how many regular users are there? Meth – 1.5 million users
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Biology Final Exam Study Guide - 1 Biology Final Exam Study...

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