Ch10Quickhits - Click to edit Master subtitle style Chapter...

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Unformatted text preview: Click to edit Master subtitle style Chapter 10 – Chemical Bonding I – Basic Concepts Chemical bonds can be classified into three broad groups: ionic bonds are due to the electrostatic attractions between positively and negatively charged ions. Ionic bonds result from the transfer of electron(s) from one atom to another, leading to the formation of a 3-D lattice of charged particles. Ionic bonding is favored when atoms of low ionization energy react with atoms of high (very negative) electron affinity. Covalent bonds result from the sharing of electrons between two atoms. Note that these designations are not absolute in the real world – bonding is usually a blend of ionic and covalent. Percentage ionic or covalent character can be discussed. Metallic bonds are a special case, and result from the delocalized sharing of electrons between metal atoms. The impetus for bond formation is achieving a lower energy state for atoms in a molecule in comparison to the free atoms. For ‘A’ group elements, this usually involves attaining a stable ‘octet’ (8 valence electrons). Or a ‘duet’ for hydrogen. In Lewis Theory , the formation of bonds involves interactions of the outermost electrons in atoms – the valence electrons. The valence electrons of an atom can be represented using Lewis Symbols (dots representing valence electrons drawn around the element symbol). For ions, Lewis symbols (‘structures’ for polyatomics) are usually drawn electrons drawn around the element symbol)....
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