Chapter 2

Chapter 2 - CHE 1301 Petrucci, Harwood, Herring, Madura...

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Click to edit Master subtitle style 11 CHE 1301 Petrucci, Harwood, Herring, Madura Chapter 2: Atoms and the Atomic Theory Dr. Bruce E. Hodson
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22 2.1 Early Chemical Discoveries
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33 Sodium + Chlorine Sodium Chloride Mass of Reactants Mass of Products Matter can neither be created or destroyed in any chemical reaction; thus, the total mass of substances involved in a chemical reaction remains unchanged = 2.1 The Law of Conservation of Mass Antoine Lavoisier (1743 – 1794) noted that in a chemical change :
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44 2.1 The Law of Conservation of Mass In the chemical reaction (change): Iron + Oxygen Iron Oxide The total mass of substances is conserved ! 1.00 g 0.43 g
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55 Malachite Copper Roofs Laboratory Synthesis 2.1 Law Of Definite (Constant) Composition Joseph Proust ( 1754 – 1826) Regardless of source, a particular compound is composed of the same elements in the same parts (fractions) by mass
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66 2.1 Law of Multiple Proportions John Dalton (1766 – 1844) If elements A and B react to form more than one compound, the different masses of B that react with a fixed mass of A can be expressed as a ratio of small whole numbers. Carbon Oxide (1) 3.0 g Carbon (C) X g Oxygen (O) + X = 4.0 g Oxygen (O) X = 8.0 g Oxygen (O) (ratio 1 : 2 ) Carbon Oxide (2) OR
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77 2.1 Dalton’s Atomic Theory In 1808, Dalton explained the fundamental Laws of Matter in his atomic theory of matter ……. . All matter consists of ATOMS – tiny indivisible particles of an element that cannot be created or destroyed during chemical change (Democitus and Lavoisier) All atoms of a given element are alike in mass and other properties, but the atoms of one element differ from the atoms of every other element (Dalton) Chemical reactions involve changes in the way the atoms are bound together i.e. changes in composition – the identity and numbers of the atoms involved does not change (Lavoisier) When atoms combine, chemical compounds are formed. A given compound always contains the same relative numbers and types of atoms (Proust and Dalton) Not necessarily – see later
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88 2.1 Dalton’s Atomic Theory Carbon Monoxide Carbon Oxygen + ( O atom ratio 1 : 2 ) Carbon Dioxide OR MULTIPLE PROPORTIONS revisited : Atoms are neither formed or destroyed. Two compounds, each with a fixed composition are formed. Masses of O consumed is explained. Examples
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99 Atom – the smallest particle of an element which retains the chemical properties of that element
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1010 Why do atoms bind together ?
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1111 2.2 Electrical Charge
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1212 2.2 Electrical Charge Electrical charge is a fundamental property of certain sub-atomic particles Matter is normally charge-neutral, and when the balance is disturbed it quickly rebalances (lightning)
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1313 2.2 The Divisible Atom Democritus (470-370 B.C.) “atoms” (from the Greek “atomos”, indivisible)
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1414 2.2 The Divisible Atom J. J. Thompson established that ‘ cathode rays ’ are beams of negative particles that are independent of the composition of the cathode Michael Faraday (1791- 1867) discovered that near vacuum permits the passage of electrical current
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Chapter 2 - CHE 1301 Petrucci, Harwood, Herring, Madura...

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