Chapter 3

Chapter 3 - CHE 1301 Petrucci, Harwood, Herring, Madura...

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Click to edit Master subtitle style 11 CHE 1301 Petrucci, Harwood, Herring, Madura Chapter 3: Chemical Compounds Dr. Bruce E. Hodson
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22 Gold (Au) Platinum (Pt) Silver (Ag) Elements in their Natural States Very few Elements are found in pure ‘atomic’ form in nature
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33 Hydrogen (H2), Nitrogen (N2), Oxygen (O2), Fluorine (F2), Chlorine (Cl2), Bromine (Br2) and Iodine (I2) Elements in their Natural States Some Elements are found as DIATOMIC MOLECULES in their uncombined forms
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44 3.1 Chemical Compounds and Their Formulae
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55 Water H2 O Table Salt Sodium Chloride Na Cl Compounds Compound – a substance made up of atoms of two or more elements, chemically combined, with the different kinds of atoms in fixed proportions N.B. Compounds CAN be decomposed into simpler compounds or elements by chemical means!
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66 Please note – the properties of an element in its natural state are generally NOT the same as its properties in a compound, e.g. Cl2(g) and NaCl(s) !
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77 A chemical formula shows the SYMBOLS and RATIO of the atoms of an element in a compound H2 O 3.1 Chemical Formulae Use subscripts (1 is assumed) C2952H4664N812O832 S8Fe4 (NH4)2SO 4 Parentheses and subscripts
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88 3.1 Molecular Compounds A Molecule is a discrete, uncharged group of two or more atoms held together in a definite spatial arrangement by forces called covalent bonds Molecules are the smallest characteristic entities of molecular compounds Water (H2 O )
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99 3.1 Molecular Formulae of Molecular Compounds A Molecular formula shows the actual number of atoms of each element in a molecule of the compound Water (H2 O ) Ethanol ( C2 H6 O ) Sulfur Hexafluoride ( S F6 ) Beryllium chloride ( Be Cl2 )
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1010 3.1 Empirical Formulae of Molecular Compounds The Empirical formula shows the smallest whole number ratio of each type of atom in a compound Benzene Molecular formula = C6H6 Empirical formula = CH Glucose Molecular formula = C6H12O6 Empirical formula = CH2O Hydrogen Peroxide Molecular formula = H2O2 Empirical formula = HO Empirical and molecular formulae are related by an integral factor, and are sometimes equal
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1111 3.1 Structural Formulae of Molecular Compounds A Structural formula shows the covalent bonds between atoms in a molecule A Condensed Structural formula also shows the connections between atoms in a molecule e.g. CH2CH2; CH2CHCH3CH2; CHCH2CH3 above
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1212 3.1 ‘3-D’ Models of Molecular Compounds Ball and stick ’ and ‘ Space filling ’ models can be useful when visualizing the microscopic world C4H 10
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1313 3.1 Ionic Compounds Ionic compound s are held together in a lattice by attractive forces ( Ionic Bonds ) that exist between positively and negatively charged ions Table Salt Sodium Chloride Na Cl Crystalline solid
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1414 3.1 Formula Units of Ionic Compounds Na Cl The formula unit of an IONIC compound is the smallest whole number ratio possible for cations(+) and anions(–) that gives neutrality There are no distinct molecules of sodium chloride
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Ionic compounds tend to form between metals and non-metals
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Chapter 3 - CHE 1301 Petrucci, Harwood, Herring, Madura...

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