Chapter 5

Chapter 5 - CHE 1301 Petrucci, Harwood, Herring, Madura...

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Click to edit Master subtitle style 11 CHE 1301 Petrucci, Harwood, Herring, Madura Chapter 5: Introduction to Reactions in Aqueous Solutions Dr. Bruce E. Hodson
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22 5.1 The Nature of Aqueous Solutions
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33 Pure water essentially does not conduct an electric current … 5.1 The Nature of Aqueous Solutions …..however its behavior may change when a solute is dissolved in it ….
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The relative abundance of ions in the solution determines whether a current is conducted …. . 5.1 The Nature of Aqueous Solutions Anions move towards the anode Cations move towards the cathode NaCl(a q)
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55 Strong electrolytes form a solution that conducts a current very well (lots of ions produced) … 5.1 The Nature of Aqueous Solutions Ionic substances and a small number of covalent substances (e.g. HCl) are strong electrolytes NaCl
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66 5.1 The Nature of Aqueous Solutions If the dissolved solute forms no ions, it is known as a non-electrolyte and the solution does not conduct a current …. Most covalent (molecular) substances are either non-electrolytes or weak electrolytes …… Ethanol (C2H6O)
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77 Several covalent substances, specifically carboxylic acids and amines, are weak electrolytes 5.1 The Nature of Aqueous Solutions Weak electrolytes form a solution that conducts a current, but quite weakly (few ions produced) e.g. HF(g) Unionized Ionized 1 mol HF 0.97 mol HF + 0.03 mol H3O+ + 0.03 mol F–
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88 To indicate the concentration of a species in solution (in mol/L), we surround the formula of that species with square brackets … 5.1 The Nature of Aqueous Solutions FYI: Sometimes the entire solution, rather than just the solute, is termed the electrolyte 58.45 g of NaCl Add water to fill the 1.00 L volumetric flask Swirl to mix [NaCl] = 1.00 M [Na+] = 1.00 M [Cl–] = 1.00 M Example
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99 5.2 Precipitation Reactions Aqueous solutions are the ideal medium for doing reactions in ……
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1010 Precipitation results when two dissolved ions join to form a compound that is insoluble 5.2 Precipitation Reactions 2 KI( aq ) + Pb(NO3)2( aq ) & 2 KNO3( aq ) + PbI2( s )
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1111 1. A solution containing silver ions and nitrate ions, when added to … 2. … a solution containing potassium ions and iodide ions, forms … 3. … a precipitate of silver iodide. 5.2 Precipitation Reactions 2 AgNO3 ( aq ) + KI( aq ) & 2 AgI( s ) + KNO3(aq)
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1212
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1313 Equations may involve compounds, all ions present or only ions taking part in the overall chemical reaction …… Ionic Equations 2 KI( aq ) + Pb(NO3)2( aq ) & 2 KNO3( aq ) + PbI2( s ) (molecular equation) 2 K+( aq ) + 2 I–( aq ) + Pb2+( aq ) + 2 NO3 –( aq ) & 2 K+( aq ) + 2 NO3 – ( aq ) + PbI2( s ) (total ionic equation – shows all soluble substances as separate ions) 2 I–( aq ) + Pb2+( aq ) ` PbI2( s ) (net ionic equation – spectator ions removed) The net ionic equation shows the actual chemical change occurring
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1414 Predictions can be made by 1. ‘swapping partners’ of the incoming solutes (this is called ‘double displacement’ or ‘metathesis’) 5.2 Predicting Precipitation Reactions 2. Decide whether either proposed product is insoluble using solubility guidelines BaCl2 ( aq ) + Na2SO4 ( aq ) & 2 NaCl ( ? ) + BaSO4 ( ? ) Original Compounds Potentially insoluble Compounds A B + C D A D + C B
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This note was uploaded on 12/19/2009 for the course CHE 1301 taught by Professor Klausmeyer during the Spring '08 term at Baylor.

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Chapter 5 - CHE 1301 Petrucci, Harwood, Herring, Madura...

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