Chapter 8

# Chapter 8 - CHE 1301 Petrucci, Harwood, Herring, Madura...

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Click to edit Master subtitle style 11 CHE 1301 Petrucci, Harwood, Herring, Madura Chapter 8: Electrons in Atoms Dr. Bruce E. Hodson

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22 Acknowledgements So Far
33 The Quantum Mechanical Model of electrons in atoms allows us to explain general periodic trends (chemical properties) of the elements by looking at the arrangement of electrons in the atom Moving to a better Atomic Model

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44 Introduction There are problems with observation at the subatomic level ………… e e Electron mass = 9.10938262 × 10–31 kg
55 Introduction …… however in the subatomic world, clear distinctions become blurred In the macroscopic world, particles and waves appear distinct (≈ 1900) …. Particulate Wavelike

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66 8.1 Electromagnetic Waves
77 A wave is a progressive, repeating disturbance that spreads through a medium from a point or origin to more distant points Waves

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88 8.1 The Wave Nature of Light Light , a form of energy, is composed of electromagnetic waves In this case the movement of charged particles causes oscillations in mutually perpendicular electric and magnetic fields
99 8.1 Characterizing Waves We can characterize any wave in terms of it’s wavelength (λ) and amplitude (A) Number of times the disturbance passes a given point is called the frequency ( ν ) measured in Hertz, Hz (cycles per second, s–1)

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1010 8.1 Electromagnetic Waves (Radiation) Speed ( c ) = ν λ EM Waves, Speed (c) = 2.998 × 108 m/s (fixed in vacuum) For visible light , wavelength (or alternatively frequency) determines color
1111 8.1 Electromagnetic Waves (Radiation) Wavelength is related to the amount of energy a wave carries Amplitude is associated with intensity

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1212 8.1 The Electromagnetic Spectrum long wavelength means low frequency, short wavelength means high frequency c = ν λ c = 2.998 × 108 m/s in a vacuum
1313 The Milky Way in Different ‘Lights’ Example

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1414 8.1 Interference Waves, including EM waves, interact with each other in a characteristic way called Interference
1515 8.1 Interference Waves, including EM waves, interact with each other in a characteristic way called Interference

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1616 8.1 Diffraction When a wave encounters an obstacle or slit which is comparable in size to it’s wavelength, it bends around it ( DIFFRACTS )
1717 8.1 Diffraction Patterns When a wave encounters two slits, an interference pattern is formed due to diffraction occurring at each slit

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1818 Baseballs (Macroscopic Particles) ….. don’t diffract Classically ’ people though of EM radiation (like light) as a wave phenomenon, and protons, neutrons, electrons as particulate (baseballs)