Chapter 9

Chapter 9 - CHE 1301 Petrucci, Harwood, Herring, Madura...

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Click to edit Master subtitle style 11 CHE 1301 Petrucci, Harwood, Herring, Madura Chapter 9: The Periodic Table and Some Atomic Properties Dr. Bruce E. Hodson
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22 Atomic number 9.1 The (Modern) Periodic Law When the elements are arranged in order of increasing atomic number , certain sets of properties recur periodically
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33 Chemical Properties of the elements are largely dependent upon number of valence electrons The Power of the Quantum Mechanical Model
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44 9.1 Elements in the Same Periodic Group similar chemical and physical properties because they have the same number of valence electrons in the same kinds of orbitals
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55 9.2 Metals, Nonmetals and Their Ions
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66 Noble Gases: The Cool Kids on the Block The noble gasses have filled valence shells, rendering them stable and hence inert
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77 9.2 Metals, Nonmetals and Their Ions A desire to have an electron configuration similar to the noble gases explains the predicted charges
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88 9.2 Metals, Nonmetals and Their Ions S atom = 1 s 22 s 22 p 63 s 23 p 4 in order to have 8 valence electrons (filled s and p subshells), it must gain 2 more S2– anion = 1 s 22 s 22 p 63 s 23 p 6 Mg atom = 1 s 22 s 22 p 63 s 2 when it forms a cation, it loses its valence electrons, resulting in a new lower energy level valence shell Mg2+ cation = 1 s 22 s 22 p 6
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99 Fe3+ [Ar] 3 d 6 4 s 2 [Ar] 3 d 5 Fe2+ [Ar] 3 d 6 4 s 2 [Ar] 3 d 6 Ti4+ [Ar] 3 d 2 4 s 2 [Ar] Fe [Ar] 3 d 6 4 s 2 Ti [Ar] 3 d 2 4 s 2 9.2 Transition Metals and Their Ions Neutral Transition metals have filled ns subshells and unfilled (n-1) d subshells. Valence electrons (highest n) are lost first Fe [Ar] 3 d 6 4 s 2
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1010 9.3 The Sizes of Atoms and Ions
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1111 9.3 The Sizes of Atoms It is difficult to define the edge of an atom. Half the distance between the nuclei of two atoms is the atomic radius Covalent radius : half the distance between the nuclei of two identical atoms bonded in a molecule . Metallic radius : half the distance between the nuclei of adjacent atoms in a solid metal .
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1212 9.3 The Sizes of Atoms It is difficult to define the edge of an atom. Half the distance between the nuclei of two atoms is the atomic radius If the two atoms are non-bonding (solid sample of noble gas), the radius is called the van der Waals radius
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1313 9.3 Periodic Trends in Atomic Radii – Main Group
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1414 9.3 Periodic Trends in Atomic Size – Main Group Atomic Radius INCREASES DOWN an ‘A’ group Increasing n value Larger orbitals = larger atomic radius
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1515 9.3 Periodic Trends in Atomic Size – Main Group Atomic Radius DECREASES ACROSS A PERIOD (left to right) Adding extra electrons reduces atomic size ( ???? )
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1616 9.3 Shielding and Penetration (Again) in a multi-electron system, electrons are simultaneously attracted to the nucleus and repelled by each other effective nuclear charge (Zeff) is the net positive charge that is attracting a particular electron Core electrons shield valence electrons
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1717 9.3 Periodic Trends in Atomic Size – Main Group Atomic Radius DECREASES ACROSS A PERIOD
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Chapter 9 - CHE 1301 Petrucci, Harwood, Herring, Madura...

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