Chapter 11 - CHE 1301 Petrucci Harwood Herring Madura...

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Click to edit Master subtitle style 11 CHE 1301 Petrucci, Harwood, Herring, Madura Chapter 11: Chemical Bonding II: Additional Aspects Dr. Bruce E. Hodson
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22 Bonding occurs in order to lower the potential energy between the charged particles that compose atoms Internuclear distance = Bond Length Lowest PE = – Bond Energy Lewis Theory doesn’t give us quantitative information ……. 11.1 What a Bonding Theory Should Do
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33 11.2 Introduction to the Valence-Bond Method
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44 11.2 Introduction to the Valence-Bond Method Valence Bond ( VB ) theory states that a covalent bond is formed when atomic orbitals (AOs) overlap (two half-filled or one filled, one empty) Overlap region between nuclei has high electron density In general, the more extensive the overlap between two orbitals, the stronger is the bond between two atoms.
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55 The hydrogen atoms’ s orbitals can overlap with the two half-filled p orbitals on sulfur. The measured bond angle in H2S is 92°; good agreement. 11.2 VB Method: bonding in H2S
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66 11.2 VB Method: Problems For CH4, the number of partially filled or empty atomic orbitals on the C atom does not predict the number of bonds or orientation of bonds …..
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77 11.3 Hybridization of Atomic Orbitals (An extension of VB theory)
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88 11.3 Hybridization of Atomic Orbitals (AOs) We can mathematically combine the wave functions for the 2 s orbital and the three 2 p orbitals on carbon, forming hybrid orbitals , holding valence electrons degenerate (Hund’s rule applies)
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99 11.3 sp 3 hybridization of Atomic Orbitals (AOs) One s and three p orbitals combine to form four sp 3 hybrid orbitals The sp 3 hybrid orbitals are 109.5o apart, giving a tetrahedral geometry, as predicted for 4 electron groups in VSEPR
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1010 11.3 sp 3 hybridization of Carbon: Tetrahedral Geometry The sp 3 hybrid orbitals are 109.5o apart, giving a tetrahedral geometry, as predicted for 4 electron groups in VSEPR Unhybridized C atom 2 s 2 p ( ( ( sp 3 hybridized C atom sp 3 l l l l l
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1111 11.3 sp 3 hybridization of Nitrogen The sp 3 hybrid orbitals are 109.5o apart, giving a tetrahedral geometry, as predicted for 4 electron groups in VSEPR Unhybridized N atom 2 s 2 p ( ( ( sp 3 hybridized N atom sp 3 l l l l l l l
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1212 11.3 sp 2 hybridization of Atomic Orbitals (AOs) Three sp 2 hybrid orbitals are formed from an s orbital and two p orbitals. One p orbital remains unhybridized
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1313 11.3 sp 2 hybridization of Atomic Orbitals (AOs) The sp 2 hybrid orbitals are in a plane, 120o apart, giving a trigonal planar geometry, as predicted for 3 electron groups by VSEPR
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1414 11.3 sp 2 hybridization of Boron: Trigonal Planar BF3 •• •• •• B F F F •• •• •• •• •• •• The sp 2 hybrid orbitals are in a plane, 120o apart, giving a trigonal planar geometry, as predicted by for 3 electron groups by VSEPR Unhybridized B atom 2 s 2 p ( ( ( sp2 hybridized B atom sp2 ( ( ( p
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